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More s-boxes are not necessarily better. Due to hardware complexity restrictions, and the structure of the permutation, DES needed multiple small s-boxes. A single small s-box would have been too weak, and larger s-boxes require substantially more hardware resources. The specific requirements for the cipher lead them to use 8 different s-boxes, and with the ...


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Actually, you are right and the paper is wrong. They omitted the fact that they used a different generator and/or vector than the AES s-box. This is why you are not getting the same results. I ran a brute force generation of all APA s-boxes, and none of them starting with $0x8C$ continued with the results of the paper. It is probable they used two ...


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AES sub-bytes is defined over the finite field $GF(2^8).$ This field has 256 elements. Its multiplicative group $GF(2^8)^{\ast}$ has 255 elements. In any multiplicative group $a^N=identity$ for all $a$ in the group. This means the multiplicative order of all the group elements (the smallest power they can be raised to and obtain 1) divides $N.$ Here, by ...



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