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The article you linked to explains everyting Salt concatenated with i encoded as a big-endian 32-bit integer So, || is concatenation, INT_32_BE is a function that encodes the 32 bit integer i as big endian. On a big endian system, INT_32_BE would do nothing. On a little endian architecture, it would do the encoding. i goes from 1 to dklen/hlen. ...


Salts are generally stored in the database with the password. They shouldn't be timestamps, salts should be random values of 128 bits or more (though this may vary depending on the hashing scheme used.) Salts improve security by making brute force attempts single-use: a password of "password" is likely going to be used many, many times. If it's hashed ...

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