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Shamir Secret Sharing (SSS) is based on constructing a polynomial of degree $t-1$, whose independent term is the secret $S$. Each share is actually a point of the polynomial. The security of SSS is based on the fact that, when one wants to interpolate a polynomial of degree $t-1$, one needs at least $t$ points of the polynomial. It can be seen graphically ...


4

Take a linear polynomial: $y=mx+b$. If I tell you that the point $(1,5)$ is on the line, can you tell me $m$ and $b$? No, because in fact there are infinitely many lines that pass through the point $(1,5)$. It takes 2 points to uniquely identify a line. In general it takes $t$ points to uniquely identify a degree $t-1$ polynomial. Furthermore, given $t-1$ ...


4

Shamir's $(t,n)$ secret sharing scheme involves picking a random polynomial $p$ (over a finite field) of degree $t-1$, such that $p(0) = s$ is the secret value to be shared (this is easy to do, since $p(0)$ is just the constant term of the polynomial), and then evaluating the polynomial at $n$ distinct non-zero points $x_1, \dotsc, x_n$ to construct $n$ ...


3

This is because $t$ shares uniquely defines the polynomial of degree $t-1$. $t-1$ shares still leaves $k$ possible and equally likely polynomials, for $k$ the size of the field, so the secret is information theoretically hidden. Think of a degree 1 polynomial, essentially a line. If you know just one point on the line, you cannot say anything about the ...



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