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RFC 4492 specifies ECC for TLS1.0 and TLS1.1. It does not cover TLS1.2 because it was written before TLS1.2; notice that 4492 is less than 5246. RFC 5246 TLS1.2 changes the signature structure for all signing algorithms including ECDSA, and also adds a Hello extension to negotiate supported signing algorithms (including hash) more flexibly. RFC 5246 A.7 ...


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SHA-256 is defined for inputting and outputting binary data using bits. Most libraries only perform calculations based on byte input instead of bit input though. So in general, SHA-256 operates on bytes, not on characters. You need to explicitly encode your characters to to bytes using character encoding such as UTF-8 to use SHA-256. Some platforms have an ...


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No, you don't have to convert to a 32-bit string. A "32-octet octet stream" means an octet stream with a length of 32 octets. An octet stream is also known as a byte array. In older times bytes could have different lengths (7 or 9 byte lengths have existed). An octet is always 8 bits; nowadays octets and bytes should be considered synonyms. So basically ...



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