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23

The public key blob doesn't consist of just the numbers that make up the public key: it begins with a header that says “this is an SSH public key”. The repeated prefix encodes this header. RFC 4254 specifies the encoding of public key in SSH key format. The "ssh-rsa" key format has the following specific encoding: string "ssh-rsa" mpint e ...


9

Only two people can communicate with each other with the chat program. No group conversations. This is fairly limited, but let's admit. The people will be communicating over the internet. So, an insecure channel. OK. The chat program will just handle basic characters, numbers and symbols that are on a standard US keyboard. This is to keep ...


6

Because the RFC says so. Signing and verifying using this key format is done according to the Digital Signature Standard [FIPS-186-2] using the SHA-1 hash [FIPS-180-2]. It says the same for RSA half a page down. Apparently the signature algorithm is a defined part of the public key method's specification, rather than being negotiated ...


5

Currently, your protocol has a fatal design flaw by only considering an attacker who could manipulate the communication. You mentioned the two security properties confidentiality and integrity and you implicitly expect some kind of deniability by using a OTP and its properties. But your protocol ensures no entity authentication or perfect forward secrecy so ...


4

It appears that based on your description, the server has a 2048 bit key pair and the clients logging in have 4096 bit key pairs. In this case, do I have the brute force protection of 2048 or 4096 bits? For someone to impersonate one of your users, they would have to break the 4096 bit key. For someone to impersonate the server, they would have to ...


4

Based on skimming the relevant RFCs, I can't find any outright problems. Key derivation from the password is performed via PBKDF2, and best I can tell, the choice of cipher is left up to the implementation. As long as a good cipher is chosen, a truly random 30-character passphrase consisting of uppercase letters, lowercase letters, and digits should have ...


3

As far as we know, it is totally infeasible for anyone to create an RSA private key with a public key that has a specific 32 character fingerprint. This remains true if you give the adversary a budget of a few billion dollars; the best approach for an adversary would be to try to break in and steal (or purchase) the private key (and the second best approach ...


3

Other advantages of CTR are: easier to decrypt from a certain offset within the ciphertext no randomness requirements for the nonce nonce can be calculated, e.g. be a simple counter nonce can be a message identifier $E = D$: encryption is the same as decryption, which means only encryption or decryption required from the block cipher less logic ...


3

There seems to be an attack on SSH when using CBC: Plaintext Recovery Attacks Against SSH. I have just scanned the paper and they state, that this will not be possible when CTR mode is used. I don't think that en-/decryption parallelization is need or even utilized in SSH. Update: Link to CERT concerning the topic: Vulnerability Note VU#958563 SSH CBC ...


2

As for the conspiracy theory issue. You should consider that the NSA deemed AES fit to protect National Security Systems and National Security Information. http://www.nsa.gov/ia/programs/suiteb_cryptography/ No one knows if AES will ever be broken apart from the people who actually broke it already so either the NSA believes AES is secure or they know it's ...


2

In the common configuration of SSH, the session keys (and a session ID) will be negotiated using the Diffie-Hellman key exchange, and then authenticated by the server, using its private key to sign all the exchanged data (which is then checked by the client). The public key authentication of the client happens after that, when the actual connection is ...


2

I'm assuming you mean a base 64 encoded key file, since removing the newlines from a binary file would obviously break things. The RSA standards (e.g. RFC 2459) only define a binary representation for keys. In practice, like OpenPGP keys (RFC 4880), they are often encoded in base 64 using the otherwise obsolete PEM standards (RFC 1421). The PEM printable ...


2

So, you have several requirements. Multiple parties share ownership of a part of the key. Parties will use human memory to store their parts. The passphrase must be a minimum of 30 characters. The first requirement definitely sounds like a job for Shamir's Secret Sharing algorithm, where you have to bring together at least $m$ of $n$ shares in order to ...


2

It is critical to combine both the key exchange and the secure channel, otherwise someone can mount a man-in-the-middle attack. The way we prevent a man-in-the-middle attack is to do a key exchange, to exchange a session key that both endpoints know but no one else (including the man-in-the-middle) can know, and then authenticate both endpoints. You seem ...


1

You want "a simple chat program that has encryption that is impossible to crack for anyone". This is not a cryptography problem; it is an information security problem. It cannot be solved by cryptography alone. Cryptography might be one tool, but cryptography alone cannot solve this problem. You cannot solve this problem through mere cryptography. ...


1

What is the main difference of the three? Can I use only one of them for everything (e.g. GPG for SSH authentication) GnuPG is an free and open-source implementation of the OpenPGP standard. Symantec PGP is a proprietary implementation of the OpenPGP standard. The OpenPGP standard defines ways to sign and encrypt information (like mail, other documents ...


1

How do cryptography in SSH(2) work? This is a very broad question. If you're interested in the details, then read the relevant RFCs that describe the SSH protocol. In particular: RFC 4253 - The Secure Shell (SSH) Transport Protocol RFC 4252 - The Secure Shell (SSH) Authentication Protocol Does key authentication in SSH(2) protect from MitM by ...


1

I am sorry that I can not comment your post, and have to write this as answer... But maybe you want to move this question to security.stackexchange.com. And the security goal of key authentication is that both enities can be sure that the public key of the other person actually does belong to the other person. This should prevents a potential attacker ...



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