# Tag Info

7

I would characterize the service as similar to a trusted time-stamping service. Except they do not do the time-stamping, but just provide the "key". This allows a user to decide what do to with it, such as using it as a private key to sign something, or an HMAC key, proving the signature is "not older" than the timestamp. If the signature is published to a ...

6

As far as I can tell, NIST has only one official document about entropy collection. SP-800-90B. The purpose of NIST Special Publication (SP) 800-90B is to specify the design and testing requirements for entropy sources that can be validated as approved entropy sources by NIST‘s CAVP and CMVP. It essentially defines a bunch of statistical tests to ...

5

Please bear in mind that this information is all secondhand. I have not looked closely at the original drafts of Hash DRBG (although you might find a draft that's early enough if you peruse the FOIA results in [1]). However, during conversations with folks at NIST I was told that there were certain weaknesses in early drafts of Hash DRBG that were very ...

5

Under the assumption that $(K,\text{Msg})\to H_K(\text{Msg})$ is a secure MAC (be it HMAC or any other MAC), and $\text{Nonce}$ does not repeat and is of fixed size, both $H_K(\text{Msg}||\text{Nonce})$ and $H_K(\text{Nonce}||\text{Msg})$ are demonstrably secure, in the sense that an adversary not knowing $K$ can't distinguish either from random, even for ...

4

Q1: Why are these tests stroked out? These tests are stroked out on pages 57-58 of the current FIPS 140-2 because they are no longer part of the current FIPS 140-2 standard, since Change Notice 2 of 2002 December third, where these pages belong. My guess for the rationale of removing these tests is that It was realized that the very principle ...

4

$\pi$ is the transcendental number 3.1415926... It's there in the formula to show this specific number was not chosen with a specific cryptographical backdoor in mind; it seems unlikely that anyone was able to select the value of $\pi$ (unless Carl Sagan was correct, of course :-)

4

The cornerstone of the handshake security is that the Finished messages, sent under the protection of the newly exchanged key (for encryption and MAC), contain hash values computed over all the handshake messages exchanged so far, including the list of cipher suites and all other parameters. As long as client and server don't negotiate the use of a cipher ...

3

Yes. $\:$ "simply XORing" is obviously malleable, which may allow related-key attacks. "When storing a short key, e.g. a 256-bit ECC private key," the "good reason to use AES" is that "the XOR with a single PBKDF2 (or other KDF) output block" is not necessarily sufficient, since an adversary might also have changed the stored public key.

3

Your description of how RFC 5959 works isn't quite right. It is not quite correct to state that RFC 5959 encrypts using AES in ECB mode. A correct statement is: if the plaintext is exactly 128 bits, then use ECB mode, otherwise use a non-trivial mode of operation found in RFC 3394. In the former case, ECB mode is fine, since it's just a single block of ...

3

The real question isn't "Why doesn't Suite B use P-521?" It is, "Why doesn't Suite B use AES-192?" NSA were only interested in 192-bit security for Suite B, but they chose to use AES-256 because AES-192 wasn't widely supported. "In fact we had wanted to use AES -128 and AES-192, but a quick survey of AES implementations (hardware centric, I believe) ...

3

I wonder why anyone would choose to rely on a source of true random numbers fraught with questions that will ultimately have no provable - or perhaps even satisfactory - answer. There are at least a couple of companies that sell generators that provide high quality true random numbers. Having a generator on-site and available real-time allows the necessary ...

2

The rationale for no longer mandating these tests include: These tests are generally not useful against most FIPS 140-2 approved random number generators. These tests can be useful against some kind of entropy sources. These tests give frequent false positives every few thousandth block of truely random stream will fail the test. Some entropy sources are ...

2

In addition to the earlier remarks about the missing background of your question please also consider that TLS and IKEv2 are actually not just a single authentication and key exchange protocol but rather a framework that supports many different AKA protocols. Let us use TLS as an example. In TLS you have the concept of ciphersuites and they allow you to ...

1

The multiplier parameter $k$ is different between SRP 6 and 6a. You can see that RFC 5054 calculates it using a hash of the domain parameters (modulus $N$ and generator $g$), so it is using SRP 6a, as opposed to SRP 6 where $k$ is constant. Likewise, in section 6.2.1 of IEC 11770-4 – the October 2005 draft at least – the equivalent value $c$ is defined as a ...

1

All the security definitions I am aware of for a cryptographic hash functions remain the same, if you apply a 1:1 mapping before hashing. In other words, if $f$ and $g$ are each others inverse, and $h$ is a secure cryptographic hash, then $x \to h(f(x))$ is also a secure cryptographic hash according to any security definition, I know of. Under such ...

1

First up: Don't believe the hype! Especially if things can easily be proven wrong. What I mean is that your NIST have just launched a new service… is incorrect, as the NIST Randomness Beacon project is known to me (and others) since 2011. Furthermore, this project was awarded a multi-year grant from NIST's Innovations in Measurement Science (IMS) Program in ...

1

Germany's BSI has produced AIS 31 that includes requirements on Physical True RNGs (PTRNGs). It is designed to fill a gap in the Common Criteria standard. Chapter 4 describes pre-defined classes for physical true, non-physical true, deterministic and hybrid random number generators. ... The basic concepts and evaluation criteria are illustrated by ...

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