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Simplified SSLv3/TLS from this book Note, $R_{(Alice|Bob)}$ is a random nonce chosen by Alice or Bob respectively, and $\{S\}_{Bob}$ is encryption with Bob's public key. pre-master secret As stated in one of the answer you link to, "The point of a premaster secret is to provide greater consistency between TLS cipher suites." In the figure above, the ...


2

When a TLS/SSL session starts(after the hellos and cipher decisions) the server gives the client it's cert. The key in the cert could perform different actions depending on the key-agreement algorithm decided on by the client and server. Let's say they agree on RSA key agreement. This means the cert contains the server public RSA key and the server has a ...


1

$\big(\hspace{-0.03 in}$You don't need that. $\:$ $\operatorname{L}\hspace{-0.02 in}\operatorname{cm}\hspace{.02 in}(\hspace{.04 in}p\hspace{-0.04 in}-\hspace{-0.05 in}1,\hspace{-0.02 in}q\hspace{-0.04 in}-\hspace{-0.05 in}1)$ can be used instead of $\phi(N)$.$\hspace{-0.03 in}\big)$ $k$ is an integer which will make the quotient an integer. ...


3

"simulator": That's a definition of security in a model that is related to but weaker than the universal composability framework (thanks to Yehuda Lindell for making that clear and you can look at the paper in his comment). You could also look up the wiki link and I think there are also several question on this site. As @Yehuda Lindell mentions in a ...


3

The obvious answer is symmetric keys. You'll find that this is actually what asymmetric keys end up used for, exchanging symmetric keys. If you trust someone who gives you a key, and you can trust that no one else has it, that's about as secure as it gets. The difficult of satisfying those requirements is why we have asymmetric keys.


2

IKEv2 uses the term PRF to refer to a negotiated keyed random-looking function (for example, possibly HMAC-SHA256). IKEv2 uses the term PRF+ to refer to a specific construction based on that underlying negotiated function, as defined in section 2.13: prf+ is defined as: prf+ (K,S) = T1 | T2 | T3 | T4 | ... where: T1 = prf (K, S | 0x01) T2 = prf (K, T1 | ...


2

The ideal encryption scheme $E$ would be one that, for every ciphertext $C=E(K, M)$, if the key remains secret for the adversary, the probability of identifying $M$ is negligible. Since that is not possible in practice, the second most reasonable approach is to define constraints strong enough to satisfy some definition of security. The $IND-$ notation ...



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