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1

It is for the 1st version of 3DES which is only using the same key three times (3DES-EDE1) Which is equivalent to DES (I think they did that so you could use 3DES to exchange with someone using DES). There are 3 different versions (or ways of using DES). EDE3 is the strongest with 3 different keys being used.


3

It looks like there's an error in the test vector. The text of Appendix B.1 states: P1 = “The quic” = 5468652071756663 ... which is incorrect. The hex encoding of The quic is actually 5468652071756963 (note the transposition of the i/69 to an f/66 in the encoding. e.g. encrypting the test vector as intended: $ echo -n 'The quick brown fox jump' | ...


3

RC4 is some kind of pseudo random number generator. You input a key (seed) and now can get a stream of pseudo random numbers. The values here are this numbers, always a byte at a time. Unlike a block cipher, you don't have a plaintext. You use this key stream to add it to the plaintext to get the ciphertext. "Adding" can be done with XOR, because that's ...



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