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10

The combination between addition modulo $2^{32}$ (not modulo $32 = 2^5$) - indicated by $\boxplus$ in the diagram - and XOR (i.e. bitwise addition modulo $2$) - indicated by $\oplus$ - makes the algorithm more non-linear. Each of them for itself is a linear operation, but over different groups (addition in $GF(2^{32})$ vs. addition in $Z/2^{32})$, and the ...


7

The final report is here http://csrc.nist.gov/archive/aes/index.html. All five finalists had at least adequate security on all accounts studied during the process, but Rijndael had better performance characteristics in both software and firmware on other hardware than 32 bit processors, compared to the other finalists.


5

Well, to figure out this sort of thing, it's easier if we work backwards. So, we start at the back (the fact that we can store up to 512 characters in a database field), and consider how much binary data we can store. Well, base-4 takes 3 bytes of binary data, and encodes it in 4 bytes of base-64. Thus, we can store 3*(512/4) = 384 bytes of binary ...


4

In order for a symmetric block cipher to be considered secure by modern standards, it has to be IND-CPA, that is indistinguishable from a random oracle under a chosen plain text attack. It also has to be IND-CCA and IND-CCA2, but IND-CPA is sufficient for it to also be secure under a known plain text attack. Presuming TwoFish is still unbroken, it should ...


4

During the end of the contest the twofish team published a paper with their analysis where they discuss their thoughts and beliefs of what should happen. Futhermore they discuss the speed security tradeoff. Keep in mind this is a bit ago during the actual AES competition.


4

I can see based upon your question that you're not already a crypto-expert. Given that, I think the single most useful answer I can give you is this: Multiple encryption addresses a problem that mostly doesn't exist. Modern ciphers rarely get broken -- at least, not in the Swordfish sense. You're far more likely to get hit by malware or an ...


3

During the final round of the AES contest, NIST issued a summary of the 5 finalists on the topics of security, speed, implementation, and such. That sounds like what you're looking for, see sections 3 and 5 of the paper. General ideas from the paper: Rijndael had a potentially lower security margin than Twofish and Serpent. Rijndael had better performance ...


2

Block ciphers are already built of multiple components: AES = fixed 8-bit sbox, MDS matrix multiplication, 8-bit rotations Twofish = key dependent sboxes, MDS matrix, 1 and 8-bit rotations, PHT Chaining ciphers adds more components, more rounds, more complexity Depending on chaining implementation, a different IV is not required for each cipher. For ...


2

Well, it turns out that, both from a security and a performance standpoint, it doesn't really matter. From a security standpoint, the goal (which, as far as we know, Twofish achieves) is that if you know all but N bits of the key, it still takes about $2^N$ trial decrypts to recover the remaining bits. So, it doesn't matter if you have a 128 bit Twofish ...



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