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10

Suppose you use the sector number times the number of AES blocks per sector as the initial value for CTR. If you successively store the content $M$ then $M'$ in the same sector $n$ then $E^{CTR}_n(M) \oplus E^{CTR}_n(M') = M \oplus M'$ (where $E^{CTR}_{n}$ is the encryption function with CTR mode and IV started for sector number $n$). CTR mode fails ...


9

XTS vs. Undiffused CBC. The issue here is malleability. Both XTS and CBC prevent an attacker from learning information about encrypted data. However, neither one completely succeeds in preventing an attacker from tampering with encrypted data. However, it's arguably easier to tamper with an (undiffused) CBC ciphertext than it is to tamper with an XTS ...


5

Yes, there are secure alternatives to support random-access based encryption. I did not come up with a way to break the proposed combination. Still, instead of inventing a new mode, I would recommend to take consider existing modes for this kind of operation, such as XTS mode. The existing modes are more studied, and (in some ways) more efficient. XTS mode ...


3

From a draft of the IEEE spec, "An XTS-AES key shall not be associated with more than one key scope. The reason is that encrypting more than one block with the same key and the same index introduces security vulnerabilities that might potentially be used in an attack on the system. In particular, key reuse enables trivial cut-and-paste attacks." ...


2

Your combined mode of operation is not as easy to attack as a two-times-pad (i.e. stream-cipher with fixed IV used twice), but it still has some weaknesses. For example, an attacker which did read your file before and after the change can easily find out which 128-bit-blocks of the file did change and which ones stayed the same. Depending on the file format ...


1

No, using XEX mode with $j = 0$ is not entirely safe. As noted in section 6 of the Rogaway (2004) paper (emphasis mine): "Some added care is needed to address the security of XEX. Suppose, to be concrete, that we are looking at $\mathsf{XEX}[E,2^{\mathbf I}]$ and $\mathbf I=[0\mathop{..}2^{n-2}]$. Let the adversary ask a deciphering query with ...


1

One answer would be nonce space: adding a tweak significantly increases the number of different nonce-tweak options you're allowed, thus increasing the maximum data that can be safely encrypted with a single key. Update: In his modes paper, Rogaway quotes an earlier source the CTR was dismissed due to trivial malleability. This makes a lot of sense, since ...


1

I don't see any reason to expect this to provide integrity (INT-PTXT or INT-CTXT). In fact, if $R1,R2$ were known to the attacker, I can show that in general it does not provide integrity: there exist some encryption algorithms that are IND-CPA secure but where your scheme does not provide integrity. (e.g., any stream cipher.) This sounds like a ...


1

If you don't mind that the ciphertext is longer than the plaintext, GCM is perfectly fine for storage encryption. Every time you write a block to disk, choose a fresh nonce and write the resulting ciphertext to disk. (You can ask for even stronger security properties, but then everything gets more expensive. Basically, build a tree structure for tags. Reads ...



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