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used to estimate the likelihood of a hypothesis given a set of data. In cryptanalysis, statistical testing is commonly used to detect non-randomness in the data, e.g. distinguis…
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the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one, apart from the sender and intended recipient, suspects the existence of the message. While cryptography prot…
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an encryption algorithm which encrypts arbitrary length plain text, using a (fixed length) key. Some stream ciphers generate a key stream from only the key, which is then XOR-combin…
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an encryption algorithm which works by replacing plaintext units with corresponding ciphertext units, following some rule depending on the key.
a set of cryptographic algorithms promulgated by the National Security Agency as part of its Cryptographic Modernization Program.
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Symmetric cryptosystems assume two communicating entities share a pre-established secret key.
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a block cipher by David Wheeler and Roger Needham of the Cambridge Computer Laboratory; notable for its simplicity of description and implementation.
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Questions about the meaning and proper use of specific technical terms or notation within cryptography.
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a set of inputs used to test new and/or established cryptographic designs and/or implementations.
A family of tweakable symmetric block-cipher algorithms with 256, 512 and 1024 bit block and key sizes.
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The three-pass protocol uses commutative encryption to let two people communicate privately without having to exchange keys in advance.
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the art of chopping a secret into little bits, so that the secret can only be learned by possessing more than a threshold number of those bits.
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Time-lock puzzles and other cryptographic schemes intended to ensure that a message cannot be read until a certain time has passed.
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the current time of an event that is recorded by a computer. You can use digital timestamps via a trusted authority to certify and protect your intellectual property or your …
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side channel attack based on the different speed at which certain operations are executed.
the process of breaking a stream of text up into words, phrases, symbols, or other meaningful elements called tokens.
Traitor tracing describes an ability of specific cryptographic schemes that helps trace the source of leaks.
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A classical cipher in which the ciphertext is obtained by scrambling the letters of the plaintext.
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a function that is easy to perform one way, but has a secret that is required to perform the inverse calculation efficiently.
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a family of permutations where the key selects a particular permutation from that family. With a tweakable blockcipher both key and tweak are used to select a permutation. So tweak a…
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A symmetric block-cipher algorithm with a 128-bit block size, and key sizes up to 256 bits.
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The framework of universal composability (UC) is a general-purpose model for the analysis of cryptographic protocols.
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a Crypto SDK was developed by Microsoft to support experimentation with the foundational features of the U-Prove technology. It is made available under the Apache 2.0 open-source license, w…
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a classical cipher that shifts each plaintext character by the value of the key at the same position modulo the key-length.
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a technology that allows telephone calls to be made over computer networks like the Internet.
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a method for a group such as a meeting or an electorate to make a decision or express an opinion.
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In cryptography, white box analysis means extracting a secret value from an implementation of a function that uses the value.
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Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 - Pre-Shared Key (also called WPA or WPA2 Personal) is a method of securing your network using WPA2 with the use of the optional Pre-Shared Key (PSK) authentication, which was…
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Encryption of data represented in XML according to the W3C Specification.
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one of the basic operations on bits and bit-sequences. It is a building block of many cryptographic primitives (and some higher-level algorithms, like modes of operations).
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a block cipher mode of operation, which is most commonly used when random accessible data (like a hard disk or RAM) is to be encoded.
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an interactive method for one party to prove to another that a statement is true, without revealing anything other than the veracity of the statement.