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Quantum cryptography describes the use of quantum mechanical effects to perform cryptographic tasks or to break cryptographic systems.
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A public-key cryptosystem based on squaring modulo the product of two primes, introduced in 1979 by Michael O. Rabin and proven to have security reducible to the hardness of integer factorization. It …
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A rainbow table allows inverting a cryptographic function (typically, a hash) at low cost, after a precomputation.
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Usage of randomness (i.e. non-predictable data, usually in the form of bits or numbers) for cryptographic purposes.
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creation of (real or pseudo) random numbers (or bits).
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A model used in cryptographic security proofs, in which concrete primitives such as hash functions are replaced with a "random oracle": a hypothetical black box that maps its inputs to truly random ou…
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a symmetric-key block cipher designed by Ron Rivest in 1987.
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a fast and simple stream cipher used correctly in SSL and incorrectly in WEP.
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a 128-bit block cipher, formerly an AES candidate, that makes heavy use of data-dependent rotations.
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not a replacement for your favorite search engine! This tag is to be used when additionally asking for a reference, aside your main question. A reference reques…
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Remote data checking protocols allow a client that has stored data at an untrusted server to efficiently verify that the server possesses the original data without retrieving it.
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based on recording an encrypted and/or signed communication and replaying it at a later time.
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material that can be referenced for further information on cryptography.
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a family of symmetric block-ciphers with block and keys sizes of 128, 160, 192, 224, or 256 bits.
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The RACE Integrity Primitives Evaluation Message Digest (RIPEMD) is a family of cryptographic hash functions.
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an asymmetric (e.g. public-key) cryptosystem, based on modular exponentiation with big exponents and modulus. RSA can be used both for signature and encryption.
a variant of RSA, meant to increase the RSA public modulus size while keeping computation cost moderate.
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a prime number of the form 2p + 1, where p is also a prime.
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a family of stream ciphers built on a pseudo-random function.
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unique (usually random) data passed into a hash function for password storage to avoid the possible usage of rainbow tables or similar attacks. Salt will not help against dictionary or brute f…
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(or substitution boxes), components in many block ciphers used to substitute parts of the data in a non-linear way. While often fixed by the algorithm (like in DES and AES), sometimes they are key-dep…
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The Schnorr Identification Protocol relies upon the security of the Discrete Logarithm Problem. Schnorr's protocol was introduced after, and is comparable to, the identification protocol of Fiat and S…
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A digital signature algorithm based on the discrete logarithm problem, provably secure in the random oracle model.
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A slow and memory-intensive hash function designed for passwords
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a toy variant of the DES cipher introduced by Edward F. Schaefer in 1996 for educational purposes. It has an 8-bit block size and a 10-bit key, and uses two rounds, with two 4x2 bit …
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a subfield of cryptography which constructs and analyzes cryptosystems that preserve the ability to 'search' over encrypted data, for some definition of 'search'.
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Secret sharing refers to splitting a secret among multiple parties so that together they can reconstruct it. All parties, or just a threshold number of them, can be required for reconstruction. If few…
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Secure storage describes storing resources in a secure way, so that they are only available to authorized users and trusted networks.
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Questions about formal definitions of "security" for various cryptographic schemes (e.g. perfect secrecy, semantic security, ciphertext indistinguishability, etc.)
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produces ciphertext that, by itself, does not reveal information about the original message besides its length