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an asymmetric (e.g. public-key) cryptosystem, based on modular exponentiation with big exponents and modulus. RSA can be used both for signature and encryption.
a variant of RSA, meant to increase the RSA public modulus size while keeping computation cost moderate.
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a prime number of the form 2p + 1, where p is also a prime.
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a family of stream ciphers built on a pseudo-random function.
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unique (usually random) data passed into a hash function for password storage to avoid the possible usage of rainbow tables or similar attacks. Salt will not help against dictionary or brute f…
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(or substitution boxes), components in many block ciphers used to substitute parts of the data in a non-linear way. While often fixed by the algorithm (like in DES and AES), sometimes they are key-dep…
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The Schnorr Identification Protocol relies upon the security of the Discrete Logarithm Problem. Schnorr's protocol was introduced after, and is comparable to, the identification protocol of Fiat and S…
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A digital signature algorithm based on the discrete logarithm problem, provably secure in the random oracle model.
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A slow and memory-intensive hash function designed for passwords
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a toy variant of the DES cipher introduced by Edward F. Schaefer in 1996 for educational purposes. It has an 8-bit block size and a 10-bit key, and uses two rounds, with two 4x2 bit …
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a subfield of cryptography which constructs and analyzes cryptosystems that preserve the ability to 'search' over encrypted data, for some definition of 'search'.
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Secret sharing refers to splitting a secret among multiple parties so that together they can reconstruct it. All parties, or just a threshold number of them, can be required for reconstruction. If few…
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Secure storage describes storing resources in a secure way, so that they are only available to authorized users and trusted networks.
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Questions about formal definitions of "security" for various cryptographic schemes (e.g. perfect secrecy, semantic security, ciphertext indistinguishability, etc.)
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produces ciphertext that, by itself, does not reveal information about the original message besides its length
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A symmetric block cipher algorithm with a 128 bit block size, and key sizes up to 256 bits.
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a hash function that will soon be two generations old. It is no longer considered secure and should only be used for backward compatibility.
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a family of cryptographic hash functions designed by the NSA and published by NIST in 2001. The family includes various output lengths (224, 256, 384, and 512 bits).
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part of the SHA-2 family of hash functions with a 256-bit output and a 128-bit security level.
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a cryptographic hash function standardized by NIST as a new alternative to the SHA-2 hash function family.
SHA-3 Competition (2007-2012) was a competition initiated by NIST as a call for a new cryptographic hash algorithm for standardization purposes.
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part of the SHA-2 family of hash functions with a 512-bit output and a 256-bit security level.
Blockcipher based on the compression function of SHA-256. This cipher interprets the internal compression function of SHA-256 as blockcipher. The key is provided as "input data" and the input is fed i…
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a threshold secret sharing scheme based on polynomial interpolation over a finite field.
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attacks using information leaked by implementations of cryptographic algorithms to obtain information about keys or (plaintext) data, instead of (or additional to) using cryptographic weaknesses.
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Algorithms and protocols for creating signatures to documents, and verifying such signatures. These are normally asymmetric, for symmetric signatures see [mac].
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A family of lightweight symmetric block-ciphers designed for good performance in hardware with block sizes ranging from 32 to 128 bits and key sizes ranging from 64 to 256 bits.
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A fast 64-bit PRF that can be used as a MAC
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a two-pass AEAD block cipher mode of operation described in RFC 5297. It can be used either for key-wrap (nonce-less deterministic authenticated encryption) or…
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a cryptographic hash function. It was designed for the SHA-3 competition where it became a finalist, but wasn't chosen as SHA-3.