A tag is a keyword or label that categorizes your question with other, similar questions. Using the right tags makes it easier for others to find and answer your question.

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Usage of randomness (i.e. non-predictable data, usually in the form of bits or numbers) for cryptographic purposes.
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a request to be provided with (links to) documentation, official papers, and specs related to one or more specific algorithms or cryptographic procedures, to provide a trusted b…
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a measure of information content, which can be viewed as the uncertainty in a random selection.
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A cipher which uses a different encryption key every time, as long as the message. The key is XOR'ed with the message to render the cipher text which can then be XOR'ed with the same key to get the p…
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an interactive method for one party to prove to another that a statement is true, without revealing anything other than the veracity of the statement.
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Padding has two primary uses in cryptography, ensuring messages are the proper length necessary for certain ciphers (e.g., block ciphers) or to provide assurances not built into the core cipher (e.g.,…
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Secret sharing refers to splitting a secret among multiple parties so that together they can reconstruct it. All parties, or just a threshold number of them, can be required for reconstruction. If few…
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a public key encryption scheme with security based on the discrete logarithm problem.
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a signature algorithm. It is the elliptic curve (EC) implementation of the digital signature algorithm (DSA).
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part of the SHA-2 family of hash functions with a 256-bit output and a 128-bit security level.
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a hash function that is no longer considered secure from a cryptographic point of view. Therefore, it should only be used for backward compatibility.
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the problem of taking an integer and finding the set of prime numbers that produce the integer when multiplied together. For large integers with large factors, factorization is hard a…
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Ciphers invented before the era of computers and modern cryptographic theory. Classical ciphers typically operate on letters instead of bits and are usually designed to be implemented by hand or using…
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The OpenPGP encrypted data format (RFC 4880), and its implementations PGP and GnuPG.
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The Password-Based Key Derivation Function 2 (PBKDF2) is a method of securely deriving encryption keys from a passphrase entered by a user. It features an iteration count that can be deliberately adju…
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a hash function that will soon be two generations old. It is no longer considered secure and should only be used for backward compatibility.
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unique (usually random) data passed into a hash function for password storage to avoid the possible usage of rainbow tables or similar attacks. Salt will not help against dictionary or brute f…
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Cryptography that will remain secure should large-scale quantum computing become feasible. Based on hard problems with no known polynomial-time quantum algorithm (e.g., Shor's algorithm).
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The attacker knows at least one sample of both the plain text and the cipher text.
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Cryptographic functions which transform plaintext into ciphertext or the other way around.
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an efficiently-computable function which emulates a random oracle.
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An assignment given to a student to be completed outside the regular class period.
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Multi-party computation (MPC) allows a set of parties, each with a private input, to securely and jointly perform any computation over their inputs.
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the size measured in bits of the key used in a cryptographic algorithm.
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A certificate consists of a public key and information about the owner (e. g. the name of a person or server).
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The process of encrypting individual files on a storage medium and permitting access to the encrypted data only after proper authentication is provided.
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Pairing-based cryptography uses bilinear maps to create a gap group that allows efficient constructions of certain primitives.
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one of the basic operations on bits and bit-sequences. It is a building block of many cryptographic primitives (and some higher-level algorithms, like modes of operations).
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easy to compute but hard to invert (i.e. find preimages for). The existence of one-way functions implies the possibility of many useful cryptographic schemes. No one-way functions …
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an open source implementation of the SSL and TLS protocols.
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a mathematical construct based on a set of axioms which are held to be true. A number of interesting and useful properties arise from finite fields that makes them particularly suita…
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an abstract algebraic concept based on a set and a group law (a binary function which closes the set).
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The attacker can specify his own plain text and encrypt or sign it.
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a system of arithmetic for integers, where numbers "wrap around" upon reaching a certain value… the modulus.
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Complexity describes - in simple words - how hard (complex) it is to reach a specific goal; and under which conditions. In cryptography, this mostly ends up in using the complexity theory to analyze t…
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In cryptography, a pseudo-random generator (PRG) is a deterministic procedure that maps a random seed to a longer pseudo-random string such that no statistical test can distinguish between the output …