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In a blind signature scheme, the signer does not know what he is signing. This is an important building block of anonymous voting or digital cash schemes, because it allows an authority to control the…
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an encryption algorithm which encrypts fixed-size blocks of plaintext to same-sized blocks of ciphertext. For good ciphers every bit of the ciphertext block depends on every bit of t…
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a sequence of bytes or bits, having a fixed length (the block-size).
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an encryption algorithm that can be used as a replacement for the DES or IDEA algorithms. Blowfish was designed in 1993 by Bruce Schneier as an alternative to existing encryption algorithm…
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a deterministic Pseudo-Random Bit Generator with security demonstrably reducible to that of integer factorization.
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attempting to find a secret value by trying all possible values until the correct one is found.
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a 128-bit, symmetrical block cipher jointly developed by Mitsubishi and NTT of Japan.
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Carter-Wegman MACs build a provably secure MAC from a universal hash
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a method for encrypting large amounts of data with a block cipher that can only encrypt fixed length plaintexts. When used with an unpredictable initialization vector (I…
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a method of building a message authentication code from a block-cipher.
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The Counter with CBC Mac mode, an authenticated encryption mode of operation for a block cipher based on the CTR mode and the CBC-MAC algorithm. .
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a variant of ID-based cryptography intended to prevent the key escrow problem. Only a partial private key is generated by the key generation center (KGC) and the other …
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A certificate consists of a public key and information about the owner (e. g. the name of a person or server).
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an encryption mode, that builds a self-synchronizing stream-cipher from a block-cipher.
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a family of stream ciphers proposed by Daniel J. Bernstein, as an evolution of Salsa20 with (conjecturally) improved resistance to cryptanalysis.
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a family of protocols in which one party presents a question ("challenge") and another party must provide a valid answer ("response") to be authenticated.
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an attack model for cryptanalysis in which the cryptanalyst gathers information, at least in part, by choosing a ciphertext and obtaining its decryption under an un…
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The attacker can specify his own plain text and encrypt or sign it.
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a form of cryptographic attack in which the attacker possesses only the encrypted message, with no corresponding plain text or segment of the key to work with.
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Ciphers invented before the era of computers and modern cryptographic theory. Classical ciphers typically operate on letters instead of bits and are usually designed to be implemented by hand or using…
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a block cipher-based message authentication code algorithm.
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an acronym for the Cryptographic Message Syntax, as defined in RFC5652
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Coding theory studies the properties of codes and their fitness for specific applications, and typically involves the removal of redundancy and the detection and/or correction of errors in transmitted…
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Difficulty of finding two different inputs that hash to the same value
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a protocol where one party commits themselves to a secret value without revealing it. At a later point, the value can be revealed.
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A commutative encryption system allows a message encrypted with two different keys to be decrypted using the keys in either order.
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Complexity describes - in simple words - how hard (complex) it is to reach a specific goal; and under which conditions. In cryptography, this mostly ends up in using the complexity theory to analyze t…
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the reduction in size of data without losing information.
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If two numbers $b$ and $c$ have the property that their difference $b-c$ is integrally divisible by a number $m$ (i.e., $(b-c)/m$ is an integer), then $b$ and $c$ are said to be "congruent modulo $m$.…
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Fixed, more or less arbitrary parameter values that appear in the definitions of cryptographic schemes, such as fixed initialization vectors for hash functions or S-box tables for block ciphers.
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Convergent encryption, also known as content hash keying, is simply encrypting a file using a symmetric encryption key which is the secure hash of the plaintext of the file.