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the study of the properties and construction of numbers, particularly integers. Prime numbers are of particular interest to number theorists and consequently cryptographers as they ar…
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(or Data Encryption Standard), a (symmetric) block cipher using a 64 bit block size, with keys of size 56 bit, the standard US block cipher from 1976 to 2001.
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an interactive method for one party to prove to another that a statement is true, without revealing anything other than the veracity of the statement.
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Usage of randomness (i.e. non-predictable data, usually in the form of bits or numbers) for cryptographic purposes.
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a public key encryption scheme with security based on the discrete logarithm problem.
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Secret sharing refers to splitting a secret among multiple parties so that together they can reconstruct it. All parties, or just a threshold number of them, can be required for reconstruction. If few…
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part of the SHA-2 family of hash functions with a 256-bit output and a 128-bit security level.
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A cipher which uses a different encryption key every time, as long as the message. The key is XOR'ed with the message to render the cipher text which can then be XOR'ed with the same key to get the p…
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a signature algorithm. It is the elliptic curve (EC) implementation of the digital signature algorithm (DSA).
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Padding has two primary uses in cryptography, ensuring messages are the proper length necessary for certain ciphers (e.g., block ciphers) or to provide assurances not built into the core cipher (e.g.,…
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a hash function that is no longer considered secure from a cryptographic point of view. Therefore, it should only be used for backward compatibility.
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The OpenPGP encrypted data format (RFC 4880), and its implementations PGP and GnuPG.
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the problem of taking an integer and finding the set of prime numbers that produce the integer when multiplied together. For large integers with large factors, factorization is hard a…
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a hash function that will soon be two generations old. It is no longer considered secure and should only be used for backward compatibility.
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Cryptography that will remain secure should large-scale quantum computing become feasible. Based on hard problems with no known polynomial-time quantum algorithm (e.g., Shor's algorithm).
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The Password-Based Key Derivation Function 2 (PBKDF2) is a method of securely deriving encryption keys from a passphrase entered by a user. It features an iteration count that can be deliberately adju…
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Ciphers invented before the era of computers and modern cryptographic theory. Classical ciphers typically operate on letters instead of bits and are usually designed to be implemented by hand or using…
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Cryptographic functions which transform plaintext into ciphertext or the other way around.
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unique (usually random) data passed into a hash function for password storage to avoid the possible usage of rainbow tables or similar attacks. Salt will not help against dictionary or brute f…
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an efficiently-computable function which emulates a random oracle.
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The attacker knows at least one sample of both the plain text and the cipher text.
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the size measured in bits of the key used in a cryptographic algorithm.
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Pairing-based cryptography uses bilinear maps to create a gap group that allows efficient constructions of certain primitives.
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a system of arithmetic for integers, where numbers "wrap around" upon reaching a certain value… the modulus.
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Multi-party computation (MPC) allows a set of parties, each with a private input, to securely and jointly perform any computation over their inputs.
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an open source implementation of the SSL and TLS protocols.
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In cryptography, a pseudo-random generator (PRG) is a deterministic procedure that maps a random seed to a longer pseudo-random string such that no statistical test can distinguish between the output …
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an encryption mode, that builds a random-access stream-cipher from a block-cipher.
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The process of encrypting individual files on a storage medium and permitting access to the encrypted data only after proper authentication is provided.
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an abstract algebraic concept based on a set and a group law (a binary function which closes the set).
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Complexity describes - in simple words - how hard (complex) it is to reach a specific goal; and under which conditions. In cryptography, this mostly ends up in using the complexity theory to analyze t…
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one of the basic operations on bits and bit-sequences. It is a building block of many cryptographic primitives (and some higher-level algorithms, like modes of operations).
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a mathematical construct based on a set of axioms which are held to be true. A number of interesting and useful properties arise from finite fields that makes them particularly suita…
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easy to compute but hard to invert (i.e. find preimages for). The existence of one-way functions implies the possibility of many useful cryptographic schemes. No one-way functions …
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A certificate consists of a public key and information about the owner (e. g. the name of a person or server).
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The attacker can specify his own plain text and encrypt or sign it.