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a type of cryptography that allows an encrypted text to be decrypted in two or more ways, depending on which decryption key is used.
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(or Data Encryption Standard), a (symmetric) block cipher using a 64 bit block size, with keys of size 56 bit, the standard US block cipher from 1976 to 2001.
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an extension of DES that attempts to foil brute force attacks
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a cryptosystem which always produces the same ciphertext for a given plaintext and key, even over separate executions of the encryption algorithm.
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In cryptanalysis and computer security, a dictionary attack is a technique for defeating a cipher or authentication mechanism by trying to determine its decryption key or pass-phrase by trying hundred…
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a form of cryptanalysis which studies cryptographic algorithms by observing how differences in input affect differences on output.
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an anonymous, non-authenticated key-agreement protocol.
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Money that may be transferred electronically from one party to another during a transaction.
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the number of times a generator of a group must be multiplied by itself to produce a known number. By choosing certain groups, the task of finding a discrete l…
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Disk encryption protects information by encrypting every byte that is written to a HD or virtual disk volume.
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A distinguisher describes an adversary's advantage. In cryptography, an adversary's advantage is a measure of how successfully it can attack a cryptographic algorithm, by distinguishing it from an ide…
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any form of cryptanalysis on data encrypted by a cipher that allows an attacker to distinguish the encrypted data from random data.
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a United States Federal Government standard or FIPS for digital signatures. It was proposed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Aug…
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short for Dual Elliptic Curve Deterministic Random Bit Generator; a pseudorandom number generator based on the elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem.
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An authenticated encryption mode of operation for a block cipher, based on the CTR mode and the OMAC/CMAC MAC algorithm.
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a mode of operation for a block cipher, with the characteristic that each possible block of plaintext has a defined corresponding ciphertext value and vice versa.
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a signature algorithm. It is the elliptic curve (EC) implementation of the digital signature algorithm (DSA).
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Elliptic Curve Integrated Encryption Scheme (ECIES) is a public key encryption system proposed by Victor Shoup in 2001.
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an algorithm for producing digital signatures. The algorithm is based on Edwards curves introduced by Bernstein et al. (2007) and named after mathematician Harold M. Edwards.
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Questions related to the teaching and learning of cryptography.
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a public key encryption scheme with security based on the discrete logarithm problem.
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A digital signature scheme based on the discrete logarithm problem, published by Taher ElGamal in 1984. Not to be confused with the ElGamal encryption system.
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a mathematical structure. In cryptography, it is common to use the structure $y^2 = x^3 + ax^2 + b$ over a finite field. Questions relating to elliptic curves and derived algorithm…
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a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints.
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the act of transforming information from one form to another. In cryptography, encoding is typically used to refer to an unkeyed process that does not provide any security in itself, but j…
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the process of transforming plaintext using a cipher into ciphertext to make it unreadable to anyone except those possessing the key. Decryption is the process of transforming that ciphe…
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The Enigma Machine was a piece of cryptographic hardware used by the German military during World War II; successful cryptanalysis was routinely applied against it and the scheme was considered broken…
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a measure of information content, which can be viewed as the uncertainty in a random selection.
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short-lived, like (for example) an ephemeral key, which is a key that only exists within the lifetime of a communication session.