A tag is a keyword or label that categorizes your question with other, similar questions. Using the right tags makes it easier for others to find and answer your question.

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A slow and memory-intensive hash function designed for passwords
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used to estimate the likelihood of a hypothesis given a set of data. In cryptanalysis, statistical testing is commonly used to detect non-randomness in the data, e.g. distinguis…
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Difficulty of finding an input string that hashes to a given value
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Linear Feedback Shift Register, a pseudorandom bit generator which can be efficiently implemented in hardware.
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an attack model for cryptanalysis in which the cryptanalyst gathers information, at least in part, by choosing a ciphertext and obtaining its decryption under an un…
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A structured set of data held in a computer, esp. one that is accessible in various ways.
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a protocol where one party commits themselves to a secret value without revealing it. At a later point, the value can be revealed.
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Multiple encryption means encrypting a message two or more times using either the same, or a different algorithm.
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an active attack where the attacker is able to interpose himself between the sender and receiver. The attacker may monitor and/or modify some or all of the messag…
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a function that cannot be distinguished (with practical effort) from a permutation selected at random with uniform probability from the family of all permutations …
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a modern cryptographic protocol for password authenticated key exchange (PAKE). It provides some desireable properties, like a passive eavesdropper being unabl…
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a password that is valid for only one session or transaction.
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Performance defines the abilities of a cipher in terms of processing throughput on various platforms, including its memory requirements.
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a cryptographic hash function designed by Guido Bertoni, Joan Daemen, Michaël Peeters, and Gilles Van Assche.
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In identity-based encryption (IBE) the public key of a user $A$ is some identity string $ID_A$, e.g., an email address. To encrypt a message for this user there is no need to retrieve an authentic cop…
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an encryption algorithm that can be used as a replacement for the DES or IDEA algorithms. Blowfish was designed in 1993 by Bruce Schneier as an alternative to existing encryption algorithm…
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an algorithm for producing digital signatures. The algorithm is based on Edwards curves introduced by Bernstein et al. (2007) and named after mathematician Harold M. Edwards.
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A digital signature scheme based on the discrete logarithm problem, published by Taher ElGamal in 1984. Not to be confused with the ElGamal encryption system.
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Anonymity describes the state of being unknown or unacknowledged.
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based on a mathematical problem that is moderate hard to solve but easy to verify.
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part of the SHA-2 family of hash functions with a 512-bit output and a 256-bit security level.
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In a blind signature scheme, the signer does not know what he is signing. This is an important building block of anonymous voting or digital cash schemes, because it allows an authority to control the…
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an encryption algorithm which is based on the shortest vector problem in a lattice.
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definition used in cryptography to describe: indistinguishability under (non-adaptive) chosen ciphertext attack (IND-CCA1), and indistinguishability under adaptive chosen ciphertext attack …
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an optimized brute-force attack that significantly reduces the number of keys the attacker needs to try by utilizing a time-space trade-off. Work is done from the begi…
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side channel attack based on the different speed at which certain operations are executed.
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produces ciphertext that, by itself, does not reveal information about the original message besides its length
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Questions on the meaning, history, and usage of symbols and notation in cryptography. Please remember to mention where (book, paper, webpage, etc.) you encountered any notation you are asking about.
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Oblivious transfer refers to a cryptographic protocol in which a sender possesses a set of data and a receiver queries the sender for a particular member of that set in such a way that the sender does…
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The term "pen and paper" can practically be interpreted as "using no tools like electronic devices", since it targets cryptographic functions, schemes, and procedures which can be handled by humans wh…
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Confidentiality in a very strong sense. Ciphers reaching perfect-secrecy can't be broken to disclose informations over the plaintext from the ciphertext, even with unlimited computing power. The most …
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Difficulty of finding another input string that hashes to the same value as a given string
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a sequence of bytes or bits, having a fixed length (the block-size).
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a digital peer-to-peer currency with no central authority. It was created in 2009 by Satoshi Nakamoto. Transactions are managed entirely by the network.
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a form of cryptanalysis which studies cryptographic algorithms by observing how differences in input affect differences on output.
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a historic polygraphic substitution cipher invented by Lester S. Hill in 1929.