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an attack model for cryptanalysis in which the cryptanalyst gathers information, at least in part, by choosing a ciphertext and obtaining its decryption under an un…
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A structured set of data held in a computer, esp. one that is accessible in various ways.
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a classical cipher that shifts each plaintext character by the value of the key at the same position modulo the key-length.
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Questions about official cryptographic standards and their implementation.
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the reduction in size of data without losing information.
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A digital signature scheme based on the discrete logarithm problem, published by Taher ElGamal in 1984. Not to be confused with the ElGamal encryption system.
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a password that is valid for only one session or transaction.
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In identity-based encryption (IBE) the public key of a user $A$ is some identity string $ID_A$, e.g., an email address. To encrypt a message for this user there is no need to retrieve an authentic cop…
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a cryptographic hash function designed by Guido Bertoni, Joan Daemen, Michaël Peeters, and Gilles Van Assche.
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Multiple encryption means encrypting a message two or more times using either the same, or a different algorithm.
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Format-preserving encryption (FPE) refers to encrypting in such a way that the output has the same length as the input, or otherwise has the same format or structure as the input.
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an algorithm for producing digital signatures. The algorithm is based on Edwards curves introduced by Bernstein et al. (2007) and named after mathematician Harold M. Edwards.
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an encryption algorithm that can be used as a replacement for the DES or IDEA algorithms. Blowfish was designed in 1993 by Bruce Schneier as an alternative to existing encryption algorithm…
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an active attack where the attacker is able to interpose himself between the sender and receiver. The attacker may monitor and/or modify some or all of the messag…
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based on a mathematical problem that is moderate hard to solve but easy to verify.
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Quantum cryptography describes the use of quantum mechanical effects to perform cryptographic tasks or to break cryptographic systems.
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Oblivious transfer refers to a cryptographic protocol in which a sender possesses a set of data and a receiver queries the sender for a particular member of that set in such a way that the sender does…
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Performance defines the abilities of a cipher in terms of processing throughput on various platforms, including its memory requirements.
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In a blind signature scheme, the signer does not know what he is signing. This is an important building block of anonymous voting or digital cash schemes, because it allows an authority to control the…
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Anonymity describes the state of being unknown or unacknowledged.
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a protocol where one party commits themselves to a secret value without revealing it. At a later point, the value can be revealed.
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a sequence of bytes or bits, having a fixed length (the block-size).
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for questions about cryptographic algorithms which were invented (and used) before the computer age.
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a function that cannot be distinguished (with practical effort) from a permutation selected at random with uniform probability from the family of all permutations …
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an authentication protocol (described in RFC 4252) for securely getting access to a remote computer.
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side channel attack based on the different speed at which certain operations are executed.
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part of the SHA-2 family of hash functions with a 512-bit output and a 256-bit security level.
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produces ciphertext that, by itself, does not reveal information about the original message besides its length
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an encryption algorithm which is based on the shortest vector problem in a lattice.
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Questions on the meaning, history, and usage of symbols and notation in cryptography. Please remember to mention where (book, paper, webpage, etc.) you encountered any notation you are asking about.
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a dynamic, object-oriented, prototype-based, weakly typed language commonly used for scripting in web browsers. Despite the name, it is unrelated to the Java programming language and sha…
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a key derivation function specified in RFC5869.
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a digital peer-to-peer currency with no central authority. It was created in 2009 by Satoshi Nakamoto. Transactions are managed entirely by the network.
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Difficulty of finding another input string that hashes to the same value as a given string
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a historic polygraphic substitution cipher invented by Lester S. Hill in 1929.
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A security property wherein past messages are protected against future compromise of the master keys.