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a United States Federal Government standard or FIPS for digital signatures. It was proposed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Aug…
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short for Dual Elliptic Curve Deterministic Random Bit Generator; a pseudorandom number generator based on the elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem.
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An authenticated encryption mode of operation for a block cipher, based on the CTR mode and the OMAC/CMAC MAC algorithm.
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a mode of operation for a block cipher, with the characteristic that each possible block of plaintext has a defined corresponding ciphertext value and vice versa.
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Elliptic Curve Integrated Encryption Scheme (ECIES) is a public key encryption system proposed by Victor Shoup in 2001.
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an algorithm for producing digital signatures. The algorithm is based on Edwards curves introduced by Bernstein et al. (2007) and named after mathematician Harold M. Edwards.
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Questions related to the teaching and learning of cryptography.
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a public key encryption scheme with security based on the discrete logarithm problem.
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A digital signature scheme based on the discrete logarithm problem, published by Taher ElGamal in 1984. Not to be confused with the ElGamal encryption system.
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algebraic-geometric structures with applications in cryptography. Such a curve consists of the set of solutions to a cubic equation over a finite field equipped with a group operat…
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a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints.
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the act of transforming information from one form to another. In cryptography, encoding is typically used to refer to an unkeyed process that does not provide any security in itself, but j…
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the process of transforming plaintext using a cipher into ciphertext to make it unreadable to anyone except those possessing the key. Decryption is the process of transforming that ciphe…
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The Enigma Machine was a piece of cryptographic hardware used by the German military during World War II; successful cryptanalysis was routinely applied against it and the scheme was considered broken…
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a measure of information content, which can be viewed as the uncertainty in a random selection.
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short-lived, like (for example) an ephemeral key, which is a key that only exists within the lifetime of a communication session.
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Property of cryptographic primitives to propagate errors. This usually means that an "error" in one block propagates into the following blocks, thereby flipping bits there or completely scrambling tho…
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the problem of taking an integer and finding the set of prime numbers that produce the integer when multiplied together. For large integers with large factors, factorization is hard a…
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a block cipher designed by NTT. It is known to be insecure.
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a structure that has been used to create a number of different block ciphers (e.g., DES, Blowfish, Twofish, RC6).
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The process of encrypting individual files on a storage medium and permitting access to the encrypted data only after proper authentication is provided.
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a mathematical construct based on a set of axioms which are held to be true. A number of interesting and useful properties arise from finite fields that makes them particularly suita…
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a U.S. government computer security standard used to accredit cryptographic modules.
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the process of making, adapting, or imitating objects, statistics, or documents with the intent to deceive.
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Format-preserving encryption (FPE) refers to encrypting in such a way that the output has the same length as the input, or otherwise has the same format or structure as the input.
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a family of cryptographically secure PRNGs; devised by Bruce Schneier and Niels Ferguson, who published it in 2003.
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A security property wherein past messages are protected against future compromise of the master keys.
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the study of letters or groups of letters contained in a ciphertext in an attempt to partially reveal the message.