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a block cipher designed by NTT. It is known to be insecure.
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a structure that has been used to create a number of different block ciphers (e.g., DES, Blowfish, Twofish, RC6).
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The process of encrypting individual files on a storage medium and permitting access to the encrypted data only after proper authentication is provided.
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a mathematical construct based on a set of axioms which are held to be true. A number of interesting and useful properties arise from finite fields that makes them particularly suita…
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a U.S. government computer security standard used to accredit cryptographic modules.
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the process of making, adapting, or imitating objects, statistics, or documents with the intent to deceive.
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Format-preserving encryption (FPE) refers to encrypting in such a way that the output has the same length as the input, or otherwise has the same format or structure as the input.
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a family of cryptographically secure PRNGs; devised by Bruce Schneier and Niels Ferguson, who published it in 2003.
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A security property wherein past messages are protected against future compromise of the master keys.
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the study of letters or groups of letters contained in a ciphertext in an attempt to partially reveal the message.
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a type of public-key encryption, where the party that has access to a secret key can learn a function from that key, which is used to encrypt and decrypt messages.
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Calculating the value of a function for given inputs, especially, in the context of secure multi-party computation and/or homomorphic encryption, without disclosing the inputs to some or all parties c…
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The Galois Counter Mode, an authenticated encryption mode of operation for a block cipher.
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an abstract algebraic concept based on a set and a group law (a binary function which closes the set).
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a family of binary, linear error-correcting codes that are used to detect and correct data transmission errors. Hamming codes are able detect up to two simultaneous bit errors and ca…
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a function which takes a variable size input and produces a fixed size output. The algorithm makes it difficult to predict the output for a given input, find two inpu…
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Hash-based digital signatures, such as Lamport one-time signatures, are digital signature schemes based on a (non-trapdoor) one-way function such as a cryptographic hash. Such schemes are expected to …
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a method of hierarchically hashing data. They allow efficient parallel hashing and updates and the possibility of verifying partial data.
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a historic polygraphic substitution cipher invented by Lester S. Hill in 1929.
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for questions about cryptographic algorithms which were invented (and used) before the computer age.
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History of cryptography and cryptanalysis. Questions that wish to ask about the history of cryptography should use this tag; if you're asking about historical ciphers you may also wish to use the clas…
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a key derivation function specified in RFC5869.
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a method for constructing a message authentication code based on a cryptographic hash function.
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Cryptosystems which support computation on encrypted data. They might be partially homomorphic (support for one operation such as + or *) or they might be fully homomorphic (any sequence of + and *).
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A homomorphic signature scheme (also malleable signature scheme) is a digital signature scheme that allows computations on signed data (without access to the secret signing key) while preserving the…
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"host-proof" means that no unencrypted or insecure data is stored on the server or passed over the network.
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The HMAC-based one-time password algorithm defined in RFC 4226.