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a public key encryption scheme with security based on the discrete logarithm problem.
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A digital signature scheme based on the discrete logarithm problem, published by Taher ElGamal in 1984. Not to be confused with the ElGamal encryption system.
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algebraic-geometric structures with applications in cryptography. Such a curve consists of the set of solutions to a cubic equation over a finite field equipped with a group operat…
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a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints.
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the act of transforming information from one form to another. In cryptography, encoding is typically used to refer to an unkeyed process that does not provide any security in itself, but j…
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the process of transforming plaintext using a cipher into ciphertext to make it unreadable to anyone except those possessing the key. Decryption is the process of transforming that ciphe…
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The Enigma Machine was a piece of cryptographic hardware used by the German military during World War II; successful cryptanalysis was routinely applied against it and the scheme was considered broken…
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a measure of information content, which can be viewed as the uncertainty in a random selection.
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short-lived, like (for example) an ephemeral key, which is a key that only exists within the lifetime of a communication session.
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Property of cryptographic primitives to propagate errors. This usually means that an "error" in one block propagates into the following blocks, thereby flipping bits there or completely scrambling tho…
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the problem of taking an integer and finding the set of prime numbers that produce the integer when multiplied together. For large integers with large factors, factorization is hard a…
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a block cipher designed by NTT. It is known to be insecure.
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a structure that has been used to create a number of different block ciphers (e.g., DES, Blowfish, Twofish, RC6).
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The process of encrypting individual files on a storage medium and permitting access to the encrypted data only after proper authentication is provided.
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a mathematical construct based on a set of axioms which are held to be true. A number of interesting and useful properties arise from finite fields that makes them particularly suita…
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a U.S. government computer security standard used to accredit cryptographic modules.
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the process of making, adapting, or imitating objects, statistics, or documents with the intent to deceive.
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Format-preserving encryption (FPE) refers to encrypting in such a way that the output has the same length as the input, or otherwise has the same format or structure as the input.
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a family of cryptographically secure PRNGs; devised by Bruce Schneier and Niels Ferguson, who published it in 2003.
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A security property wherein past messages are protected against future compromise of the master keys.
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the study of letters or groups of letters contained in a ciphertext in an attempt to partially reveal the message.
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a type of public-key encryption, where the party that has access to a secret key can learn a function from that key, which is used to encrypt and decrypt messages.
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Calculating the value of a function for given inputs, especially, in the context of secure multi-party computation and/or homomorphic encryption, without disclosing the inputs to some or all parties c…
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used in Secure Multiparty Computation
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The Galois Counter Mode, an authenticated encryption mode of operation for a block cipher.
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an abstract algebraic concept based on a set and a group law (a binary function which closes the set).
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a family of binary, linear error-correcting codes that are used to detect and correct data transmission errors. Hamming codes are able detect up to two simultaneous bit errors and ca…
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