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The Enigma Machine was a piece of cryptographic hardware used by the German military during World War II; successful cryptanalysis was routinely applied against it and the scheme was considered broken…
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a measure of information content, which can be viewed as the uncertainty in a random selection.
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short-lived, like (for example) an ephemeral key, which is a key that only exists within the lifetime of a communication session.
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Property of cryptographic primitives to propagate errors. This usually means that an "error" in one block propagates into the following blocks, thereby flipping bits there or completely scrambling tho…
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the problem of taking an integer and finding the set of prime numbers that produce the integer when multiplied together. For large integers with large factors, factorization is hard a…
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a block cipher designed by NTT. It is known to be insecure.
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a structure that has been used to create a number of different block ciphers (e.g., DES, Blowfish, Twofish, RC6).
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The process of encrypting individual files on a storage medium and permitting access to the encrypted data only after proper authentication is provided.
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a mathematical construct based on a set of axioms which are held to be true. A number of interesting and useful properties arise from finite fields that makes them particularly suita…
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a U.S. government computer security standard used to accredit cryptographic modules.
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the process of making, adapting, or imitating objects, statistics, or documents with the intent to deceive.
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Format-preserving encryption (FPE) refers to encrypting in such a way that the output has the same length as the input, or otherwise has the same format or structure as the input.
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a family of cryptographically secure PRNGs; devised by Bruce Schneier and Niels Ferguson, who published it in 2003.
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A security property wherein past messages are protected against future compromise of the master keys.
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the study of letters or groups of letters contained in a ciphertext in an attempt to partially reveal the message.
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a type of public-key encryption, where the party that has access to a secret key can learn a function from that key, which is used to encrypt and decrypt messages.
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Calculating the value of a function for given inputs, especially, in the context of secure multi-party computation and/or homomorphic encryption, without disclosing the inputs to some or all parties c…
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The Galois Counter Mode, an authenticated encryption mode of operation for a block cipher.
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an abstract algebraic concept based on a set and a group law (a binary function which closes the set).
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a family of binary, linear error-correcting codes that are used to detect and correct data transmission errors. Hamming codes are able detect up to two simultaneous bit errors and ca…
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a function which takes a variable size input and produces a fixed size output. The algorithm makes it difficult to predict the output for a given input, find two inpu…
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Hash-based digital signatures, such as Lamport one-time signatures, are digital signature schemes based on a (non-trapdoor) one-way function such as a cryptographic hash. Such schemes are expected to …
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a method of hierarchically hashing data. They allow efficient parallel hashing and updates and the possibility of verifying partial data.
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a historic polygraphic substitution cipher invented by Lester S. Hill in 1929.
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for questions about cryptographic algorithms which were invented (and used) before the computer age.