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a cryptographic hash function standardized by NIST as a new alternative to the SHA-2 hash function family.
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A slow and memory-intensive hash function designed for passwords
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an algorithm for producing digital signatures. The algorithm is based on Edwards curves introduced by Bernstein et al. (2007) and named after mathematician Harold M. Edwards.
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a function that cannot be distinguished (with practical effort) from a permutation selected at random with uniform probability from the family of all permutations …
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Linear Feedback Shift Register, a pseudorandom bit generator which can be efficiently implemented in hardware.
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Multiple encryption means encrypting a message two or more times using either the same, or a different algorithm.
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A structured set of data held in a computer, esp. one that is accessible in various ways.
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a protocol where one party commits themselves to a secret value without revealing it. At a later point, the value can be revealed.
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used to estimate the likelihood of a hypothesis given a set of data. In cryptanalysis, statistical testing is commonly used to detect non-randomness in the data, e.g. distinguis…
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a modern cryptographic protocol for password authenticated key exchange (PAKE). It provides some desireable properties, like a passive eavesdropper being unabl…
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an encryption algorithm that can be used as a replacement for the DES or IDEA algorithms. Blowfish was designed in 1993 by Bruce Schneier as an alternative to existing encryption algorithm…
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an active attack where the attacker is able to interpose himself between the sender and receiver. The attacker may monitor and/or modify some or all of the messag…
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In identity-based encryption (IBE) the public key of a user $A$ is some identity string $ID_A$, e.g., an email address. To encrypt a message for this user there is no need to retrieve an authentic cop…
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a cryptographic hash function designed by Guido Bertoni, Joan Daemen, Michaël Peeters, and Gilles Van Assche.
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based on a mathematical problem that is moderate hard to solve but easy to verify.
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a password that is valid for only one session or transaction.
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Performance defines the abilities of a cipher in terms of processing throughput on various platforms, including its memory requirements.
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Anonymity describes the state of being unknown or unacknowledged.
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part of the SHA-2 family of hash functions with a 512-bit output and a 256-bit security level.
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side channel attack based on the different speed at which certain operations are executed.
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In a blind signature scheme, the signer does not know what he is signing. This is an important building block of anonymous voting or digital cash schemes, because it allows an authority to control the…
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Confidentiality in a very strong sense. Ciphers reaching perfect-secrecy can't be broken to disclose informations over the plaintext from the ciphertext, even with unlimited computing power. The most …
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a family of stream ciphers built on a pseudo-random function.
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an optimized brute-force attack that significantly reduces the number of keys the attacker needs to try by utilizing a time-space trade-off. Work is done from the begi…
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an encryption algorithm which is based on the shortest vector problem in a lattice.
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Questions on the meaning, history, and usage of symbols and notation in cryptography. Please remember to mention where (book, paper, webpage, etc.) you encountered any notation you are asking about.
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Difficulty of finding another input string that hashes to the same value as a given string
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produces ciphertext that, by itself, does not reveal information about the original message besides its length
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an authentication protocol (described in RFC 4252) for securely getting access to a remote computer.
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a sequence of bytes or bits, having a fixed length (the block-size).
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a digital peer-to-peer currency with no central authority. It was created in 2009 by Satoshi Nakamoto. Transactions are managed entirely by the network.
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a form of cryptanalysis which studies cryptographic algorithms by observing how differences in input affect differences on output.
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A security property wherein past messages are protected against future compromise of the master keys.
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a historic polygraphic substitution cipher invented by Lester S. Hill in 1929.
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for questions about cryptographic algorithms which were invented (and used) before the computer age.