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Confidentiality in a very strong sense. Ciphers reaching perfect-secrecy can't be broken to disclose informations over the plaintext from the ciphertext, even with unlimited computing power. The most …
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an algorithm for producing digital signatures. The algorithm is based on Edwards curves introduced by Bernstein et al. (2007) and named after mathematician Harold M. Edwards.
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A public-key cryptosystem invented by Pascal Paillier in 1999.
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In identity-based encryption (IBE) the public key of a user $A$ is some identity string $ID_A$, e.g., an email address. To encrypt a message for this user there is no need to retrieve an authentic cop…
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Linear Feedback Shift Register, a pseudorandom bit generator which can be efficiently implemented in hardware.
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an encryption algorithm which is based on the shortest vector problem in a lattice.
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Multiple encryption means encrypting a message two or more times using either the same, or a different algorithm.
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Questions on the meaning, history, and usage of symbols and notation in cryptography. Please remember to mention where (book, paper, webpage, etc.) you encountered any notation you are asking about.
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a function that cannot be distinguished (with practical effort) from a permutation selected at random with uniform probability from the family of all permutations …
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the reduction in size of data without losing information.
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a cryptographic hash function standardized by NIST as a new alternative to the SHA-2 hash function family.
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a type of public-key encryption in which the key used for encryption is based on selected attributes of the readers. Decryption of the ciphertext is possible only if the …
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an active attack where the attacker is able to interpose himself between the sender and receiver. The attacker may monitor and/or modify some or all of the messag…
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A slow and memory-intensive hash function designed for passwords
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A digital signature scheme based on the discrete logarithm problem, published by Taher ElGamal in 1984. Not to be confused with the ElGamal encryption system.
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A structured set of data held in a computer, esp. one that is accessible in various ways.
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a sequence of bytes or bits, having a fixed length (the block-size).
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a protocol where one party commits themselves to a secret value without revealing it. At a later point, the value can be revealed.
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used to estimate the likelihood of a hypothesis given a set of data. In cryptanalysis, statistical testing is commonly used to detect non-randomness in the data, e.g. distinguis…
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a modern cryptographic protocol for password authenticated key exchange (PAKE). It provides some desireable properties, like a passive eavesdropper being unabl…
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produces ciphertext that, by itself, does not reveal information about the original message besides its length
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History of cryptography and cryptanalysis. Questions that wish to ask about the history of cryptography should use this tag; if you're asking about historical ciphers you may also wish to use the clas…
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an encryption algorithm that can be used as a replacement for the DES or IDEA algorithms. Blowfish was designed in 1993 by Bruce Schneier as an alternative to existing encryption algorithm…
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the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one, apart from the sender and intended recipient, suspects the existence of the message. While cryptography prot…
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a family of stream ciphers built on a pseudo-random function.
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a digital peer-to-peer currency with no central authority. It was created in 2009 by Satoshi Nakamoto. Transactions are managed entirely by the network.
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based on a mathematical problem that is moderate hard to solve but easy to verify.
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the process of generating keys for cryptographic purposes.
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Difficulty of finding another input string that hashes to the same value as a given string
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part of the SHA-2 family of hash functions with a 512-bit output and a 256-bit security level.
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a form of cryptanalysis which studies cryptographic algorithms by observing how differences in input affect differences on output.
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a cryptographic hash function designed by Guido Bertoni, Joan Daemen, Michaël Peeters, and Gilles Van Assche.
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a known plaintext attack and uses a linear approximation to describe the behavior of the block cipher. Given sufficient pairs of plaintext and corresponding ciphertext, bits of…
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an optimized brute-force attack that significantly reduces the number of keys the attacker needs to try by utilizing a time-space trade-off. Work is done from the begi…
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Quantum cryptography describes the use of quantum mechanical effects to perform cryptographic tasks or to break cryptographic systems.
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Oblivious transfer refers to a cryptographic protocol in which a sender possesses a set of data and a receiver queries the sender for a particular member of that set in such a way that the sender does…