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an algorithm for producing digital signatures. The algorithm is based on Edwards curves introduced by Bernstein et al. (2007) and named after mathematician Harold M. Edwards.
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a function that cannot be distinguished (with practical effort) from a permutation selected at random with uniform probability from the family of all permutations …
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a cryptographic hash function standardized by NIST as a new alternative to the SHA-2 hash function family.
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Linear Feedback Shift Register, a pseudorandom bit generator which can be efficiently implemented in hardware.
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Multiple encryption means encrypting a message two or more times using either the same, or a different algorithm.
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A digital signature scheme based on the discrete logarithm problem, published by Taher ElGamal in 1984. Not to be confused with the ElGamal encryption system.
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A structured set of data held in a computer, esp. one that is accessible in various ways.
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a protocol where one party commits themselves to a secret value without revealing it. At a later point, the value can be revealed.
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used to estimate the likelihood of a hypothesis given a set of data. In cryptanalysis, statistical testing is commonly used to detect non-randomness in the data, e.g. distinguis…
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a modern cryptographic protocol for password authenticated key exchange (PAKE). It provides some desireable properties, like a passive eavesdropper being unabl…
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part of the SHA-2 family of hash functions with a 512-bit output and a 256-bit security level.
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an active attack where the attacker is able to interpose himself between the sender and receiver. The attacker may monitor and/or modify some or all of the messag…
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In identity-based encryption (IBE) the public key of a user $A$ is some identity string $ID_A$, e.g., an email address. To encrypt a message for this user there is no need to retrieve an authentic cop…
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Confidentiality in a very strong sense. Ciphers reaching perfect-secrecy can't be broken to disclose informations over the plaintext from the ciphertext, even with unlimited computing power. The most …
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Performance defines the abilities of a cipher in terms of processing throughput on various platforms, including its memory requirements.
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an encryption algorithm that can be used as a replacement for the DES or IDEA algorithms. Blowfish was designed in 1993 by Bruce Schneier as an alternative to existing encryption algorithm…
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based on a mathematical problem that is moderate hard to solve but easy to verify.
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a cryptographic hash function designed by Guido Bertoni, Joan Daemen, Michaël Peeters, and Gilles Van Assche.
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side channel attack based on the different speed at which certain operations are executed.
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an encryption algorithm which is based on the shortest vector problem in a lattice.
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a password that is valid for only one session or transaction.
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Anonymity describes the state of being unknown or unacknowledged.
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Difficulty of finding another input string that hashes to the same value as a given string
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In a blind signature scheme, the signer does not know what he is signing. This is an important building block of anonymous voting or digital cash schemes, because it allows an authority to control the…
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Questions on the meaning, history, and usage of symbols and notation in cryptography. Please remember to mention where (book, paper, webpage, etc.) you encountered any notation you are asking about.
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an optimized brute-force attack that significantly reduces the number of keys the attacker needs to try by utilizing a time-space trade-off. Work is done from the begi…
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a dynamic, object-oriented, prototype-based, weakly typed language commonly used for scripting in web browsers. Despite the name, it is unrelated to the Java programming language and sha…
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a key derivation function specified in RFC5869.
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The term "pen and paper" can practically be interpreted as "using no tools like electronic devices", since it targets cryptographic functions, schemes, and procedures which can be handled by humans wh…
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A security property wherein past messages are protected against future compromise of the master keys.
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an authentication protocol (described in RFC 4252) for securely getting access to a remote computer.
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produces ciphertext that, by itself, does not reveal information about the original message besides its length
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a family of stream ciphers built on a pseudo-random function.
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the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one, apart from the sender and intended recipient, suspects the existence of the message. While cryptography prot…
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a historic polygraphic substitution cipher invented by Lester S. Hill in 1929.