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Oblivious transfer refers to a cryptographic protocol in which a sender possesses a set of data and a receiver queries the sender for a particular member of that set in such a way that the sender does…
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A security property wherein past messages are protected against future compromise of the master keys.
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the act of transforming information from one form to another. In cryptography, encoding is typically used to refer to an unkeyed process that does not provide any security in itself, but j…
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Anonymity describes the state of being unknown or unacknowledged.
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a family of stream ciphers proposed by Daniel J. Bernstein, as an evolution of Salsa20 with (conjecturally) improved resistance to cryptanalysis.
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In a blind signature scheme, the signer does not know what he is signing. This is an important building block of anonymous voting or digital cash schemes, because it allows an authority to control the…
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a password that is valid for only one session or transaction.
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an authentication protocol (described in RFC 4252) for securely getting access to a remote computer.
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A side-channel attack on implementations of encryption modes that use padding (e.g. ECB, CBC) that uses information leaked during decryption of tampered ciphertext values to derive information about t…
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A public-key cryptosystem based on squaring modulo the product of two primes, introduced in 1979 by Michael O. Rabin and proven to have security reducible to the hardness of integer factorization. It …
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A length extension attack on a hash or message authentication code function, which allows extra information to be added to the input message without changing the output value.
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a key derivation function specified in RFC5869.
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A digital signature algorithm based on the discrete logarithm problem, provably secure in the random oracle model.
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the art of chopping a secret into little bits, so that the secret can only be learned by possessing more than a threshold number of those bits.
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The Merkle–Damgård construction — used in the design of many popular hash algorithms such as MD5, SHA1 and SHA2 — is a method of building collision-resistant cryptographic hash functions from collisio…
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The term "pen and paper" can practically be interpreted as "using no tools like electronic devices", since it targets cryptographic functions, schemes, and procedures which can be handled by humans wh…
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a cryptanalytic technique. Birthday attacks can be used to find collisions in a cryptographic hash function. For instance, suppose we have a hash function which, when supplied wit…
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Disk encryption protects information by encrypting every byte that is written to a HD or virtual disk volume.
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A backdoor in a cryptosystem or algorithm allows someone to obtain access to the decrypted data, without the need for the key/password that was used to encrypt the data.
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A rainbow table allows inverting a cryptographic function (typically, a hash) at low cost, after a precomputation.
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a dynamic, object-oriented, prototype-based, weakly typed language commonly used for scripting in web browsers. Despite the name, it is unrelated to the Java programming language and sha…
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a set of inputs used to test new and/or established cryptographic designs and/or implementations.
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a historic polygraphic substitution cipher invented by Lester S. Hill in 1929.
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the central producer and manager of signals intelligence for the United States Government.
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A distinguisher describes an adversary's advantage. In cryptography, an adversary's advantage is a measure of how successfully it can attack a cryptographic algorithm, by distinguishing it from an ide…
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a cryptosystem which always produces the same ciphertext for a given plaintext and key, even over separate executions of the encryption algorithm.
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Data privacy refers to (cryptographic) methods to prevent the disclosure of sensitive (identifying) information of persons.
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the process of making, adapting, or imitating objects, statistics, or documents with the intent to deceive.
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The Enigma Machine was a piece of cryptographic hardware used by the German military during World War II; successful cryptanalysis was routinely applied against it and the scheme was considered broken…
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an encryption mode, that builds a self-synchronizing stream-cipher from a block-cipher.
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an asymmetric encryption algorithm and is a candidate for "post-quantum cryptography", as it is immune to attacks using Shor's algorithm and — more generally — measuring coset…
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A symmetric block cipher algorithm with a 128 bit block size, and key sizes up to 256 bits.
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Secure storage describes storing resources in a secure way, so that they are only available to authorized users and trusted networks.
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based on recording an encrypted and/or signed communication and replaying it at a later time.
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a construction scheme for hash functions (and other symmetric primitives) based on an unkeyed permutation. The most famous example is Keccak, which won the SHA-3 competitio…
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a block cipher mode of operation, which is most commonly used when random accessible data (like a hard disk or RAM) is to be encoded.