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a form of cryptanalysis which studies cryptographic algorithms by observing how differences in input affect differences on output.
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an optimized brute-force attack that significantly reduces the number of keys the attacker needs to try by utilizing a time-space trade-off. Work is done from the begi…
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The term "pen and paper" can practically be interpreted as "using no tools like electronic devices", since it targets cryptographic functions, schemes, and procedures which can be handled by humans wh…
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said to be malleable if it is feasible to modify ciphertext to produce meaningful changes in the corresponding plaintext without knowing the encryption key.
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the central producer and manager of signals intelligence for the United States Government.
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definition used in cryptography to describe: indistinguishability under (non-adaptive) chosen ciphertext attack (IND-CCA1), and indistinguishability under adaptive chosen ciphertext attack …
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History of cryptography and cryptanalysis. Questions that wish to ask about the history of cryptography should use this tag; if you're asking about historical ciphers you may also wish to use the clas…
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a method of hierarchically hashing data. They allow efficient parallel hashing and updates and the possibility of verifying partial data.
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a type of public-key encryption in which the key used for encryption is based on selected attributes of the readers. Decryption of the ciphertext is possible only if the …
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A backdoor in a cryptosystem or algorithm allows someone to obtain access to the decrypted data, without the need for the key/password that was used to encrypt the data.
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A digital signature algorithm based on the discrete logarithm problem, provably secure in the random oracle model.
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A symmetric block cipher algorithm with a 128 bit block size, and key sizes up to 256 bits.
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a stream cipher built on a pseudo-random function.
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the art of chopping a secret into little bits, so that the secret can only be learned by possessing more than a threshold number of those bits.
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the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one, apart from the sender and intended recipient, suspects the existence of the message. While cryptography prot…
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an asymmetric encryption algorithm and is a candidate for "post-quantum cryptography", as it is immune to attacks using Shor's algorithm and — more generally — measuring coset…
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A side-channel attack on implementations of encryption modes that use padding (e.g. ECB, CBC) that uses information leaked during decryption of tampered ciphertext values to derive information about t…
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based on recording an encrypted and/or signed communication and replaying it at a later time.
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The HMAC-based one-time password algorithm defined in RFC 4226.
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Disk encryption protects information by encrypting every byte that is written to a HD or virtual disk volume.
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Secure Remote Password protocol version 6.
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a set of inputs used to test new and/or established cryptographic designs and/or implementations.
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the current time of an event that is recorded by a computer. You can use digital timestamps via a trusted authority to certify and protect your intellectual property or your …
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A symmetric block-cipher algorithm with a 128-bit block size, and key sizes up to 256 bits.
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a construction scheme for hash functions (and other symmetric primitives) based on an unkeyed permutation. The most famous example is Keccak, which won the SHA-3 competitio…
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a type of cryptography that allows an encrypted text to be decrypted in two or more ways, depending on which decryption key is used.
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a method of cryptanalysis against a cipher 1)expressing the cipher operations as a system of equations. 2)substituting in known data for some of the variables. 3)sol…
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A length extension attack on a hash or message authentication code function, which allows extra information to be added to the input message without changing the output value.
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The Merkle–Damgård construction — used in the design of many popular hash algorithms such as MD5, SHA1 and SHA2 — is a method of building collision-resistant cryptographic hash functions from collisio…
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A rainbow table allows inverting a cryptographic function (typically, a hash) at low cost, after a precomputation.
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PKCS #11 (Public-Key Cryptography Standard 11) defines a platform-independent API to cryptographic tokens, such as hardware security modules (HSM) and smart cards called *Cryptoki*.
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a cryptosystem which always produces the same ciphertext for a given plaintext and key, even over separate executions of the encryption algorithm.
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the process of making, adapting, or imitating objects, statistics, or documents with the intent to deceive.
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In cryptanalysis and computer security, a dictionary attack is a technique for defeating a cipher or authentication mechanism by trying to determine its decryption key or pass-phrase by trying hundred…