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an asymmetric encryption algorithm and is a candidate for "post-quantum cryptography", as it is immune to attacks using Shor's algorithm and — more generally — measuring coset…
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the central producer and manager of signals intelligence for the United States Government.
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an encryption algorithm which is based on the shortest vector problem in a lattice.
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A digital signature algorithm based on the discrete logarithm problem, provably secure in the random oracle model.
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The term "pen and paper" can practically be interpreted as "using no tools like electronic devices", since it targets cryptographic functions, schemes, and procedures which can be handled by humans wh…
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part of the SHA-2 family of hash functions with a 512-bit output and a 256-bit security level.
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the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one, apart from the sender and intended recipient, suspects the existence of the message. While cryptography prot…
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Secure Remote Password protocol version 6.
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side channel attack based on the different speed at which certain operations are executed.
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A side-channel attack on implementations of encryption modes that use padding (e.g. ECB, CBC) that uses information leaked during decryption of tampered ciphertext values to derive information about t…
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A symmetric block cipher algorithm with a 128 bit block size, and key sizes up to 256 bits.
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a method of hierarchically hashing data. They allow efficient parallel hashing and updates and the possibility of verifying partial data.
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A security property wherein past messages are protected against future compromise of the master keys.
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a form of cryptanalysis which studies cryptographic algorithms by observing how differences in input affect differences on output.
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a type of public-key encryption in which the key used for encryption is based on selected attributes of the readers. Decryption of the ciphertext is possible only if the …
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a type of cryptography that allows an encrypted text to be decrypted in two or more ways, depending on which decryption key is used.
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Disk encryption protects information by encrypting every byte that is written to a HD or virtual disk volume.
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The HMAC-based one-time password algorithm defined in RFC 4226.
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based on recording an encrypted and/or signed communication and replaying it at a later time.
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The Merkle–Damgård construction — used in the design of many popular hash algorithms such as MD5, SHA1 and SHA2 — is a method of building collision-resistant cryptographic hash functions from collisio…
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A length extension attack on a hash or message authentication code function, which allows extra information to be added to the input message without changing the output value.
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an authentication protocol (described in RFC 4252) for securely getting access to a remote computer.
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a set of inputs used to test new and/or established cryptographic designs and/or implementations.
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a construction scheme for hash functions (and other symmetric primitives) based on an unkeyed permutation. The most famous example is Keccak, which won the SHA-3 competitio…
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the current time of an event that is recorded by a computer. You can use digital timestamps via a trusted authority to certify and protect your intellectual property or your …
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a stream cipher built on a pseudo-random function.
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the process of making, adapting, or imitating objects, statistics, or documents with the intent to deceive.
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a method of cryptanalysis against a cipher 1)expressing the cipher operations as a system of equations. 2)substituting in known data for some of the variables. 3)sol…
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any form of cryptanalysis on data encrypted by a cipher that allows an attacker to distinguish the encrypted data from random data.
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a known plaintext attack and uses a linear approximation to describe the behavior of the block cipher. Given sufficient pairs of plaintext and corresponding ciphertext, bits of…
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the art of chopping a secret into little bits, so that the secret can only be learned by possessing more than a threshold number of those bits.
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A symmetric block-cipher algorithm with a 128-bit block size, and key sizes up to 256 bits.
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Secure remote password protocol
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A residue of order 2. A number $a$ for which the congruence $x^2 ≡ a \pmod m$ has a solution is called a quadratic residue modulo $m$.