A tag is a keyword or label that categorizes your question with other, similar questions. Using the right tags makes it easier for others to find and answer your question.

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Difficulty of finding another input string that hashes to the same value as a given string
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History of cryptography and cryptanalysis. Questions that wish to ask about the history of cryptography should use this tag; if you're asking about historical ciphers you may also wish to use the clas…
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a form of cryptanalysis which studies cryptographic algorithms by observing how differences in input affect differences on output.
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a dynamic, object-oriented, prototype-based, weakly typed language commonly used for scripting in web browsers. Despite the name, it is unrelated to the Java programming language and sha…
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said to be malleable if it is feasible to modify ciphertext to produce meaningful changes in the corresponding plaintext without knowing the encryption key.
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the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one, apart from the sender and intended recipient, suspects the existence of the message. While cryptography prot…
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produces ciphertext that, by itself, does not reveal information about the original message besides its length
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an authentication protocol (described in RFC 4252) for securely getting access to a remote computer.
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A symmetric block cipher algorithm with a 128 bit block size, and key sizes up to 256 bits.
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a stream cipher built on a pseudo-random function.
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the central producer and manager of signals intelligence for the United States Government.
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a method of hierarchically hashing data. They allow efficient parallel hashing and updates and the possibility of verifying partial data.
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a type of public-key encryption in which the key used for encryption is based on selected attributes of the readers. Decryption of the ciphertext is possible only if the …
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A backdoor in a cryptosystem or algorithm allows someone to obtain access to the decrypted data, without the need for the key/password that was used to encrypt the data.
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a method of cryptanalysis against a cipher 1)expressing the cipher operations as a system of equations. 2)substituting in known data for some of the variables. 3)sol…
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A side-channel attack on implementations of encryption modes that use padding (e.g. ECB, CBC) that uses information leaked during decryption of tampered ciphertext values to derive information about t…
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A digital signature algorithm based on the discrete logarithm problem, provably secure in the random oracle model.
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the art of chopping a secret into little bits, so that the secret can only be learned by possessing more than a threshold number of those bits.
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the current time of an event that is recorded by a computer. You can use digital timestamps via a trusted authority to certify and protect your intellectual property or your …
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based on recording an encrypted and/or signed communication and replaying it at a later time.
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an asymmetric encryption algorithm and is a candidate for "post-quantum cryptography", as it is immune to attacks using Shor's algorithm and — more generally — measuring coset…
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The Merkle–Damgård construction — used in the design of many popular hash algorithms such as MD5, SHA1 and SHA2 — is a method of building collision-resistant cryptographic hash functions from collisio…
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A length extension attack on a hash or message authentication code function, which allows extra information to be added to the input message without changing the output value.
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Disk encryption protects information by encrypting every byte that is written to a HD or virtual disk volume.
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The HMAC-based one-time password algorithm defined in RFC 4226.
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a known plaintext attack and uses a linear approximation to describe the behavior of the block cipher. Given sufficient pairs of plaintext and corresponding ciphertext, bits of…
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an encryption mode, that builds a synchronous stream-cipher from a block-cipher.
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Secure Remote Password protocol version 6.
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a construction scheme for hash functions (and other symmetric primitives) based on an unkeyed permutation. The most famous example is Keccak, which won the SHA-3 competitio…
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a set of inputs used to test new and/or established cryptographic designs and/or implementations.
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A rainbow table allows inverting a cryptographic function (typically, a hash) at low cost, after a precomputation.
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the process of generating keys for cryptographic purposes.
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a type of cryptography that allows an encrypted text to be decrypted in two or more ways, depending on which decryption key is used.
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a cryptosystem which always produces the same ciphertext for a given plaintext and key, even over separate executions of the encryption algorithm.
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The Enigma Machine was a piece of cryptographic hardware used by the German military during World War II; successful cryptanalysis was routinely applied against it and the scheme was considered broken…