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In a blind signature scheme, the signer does not know what he is signing. This is an important building block of anonymous voting or digital cash schemes, because it allows an authority to control the…
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a family of stream ciphers built on a pseudo-random function.
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an authentication protocol (described in RFC 4252) for securely getting access to a remote computer.
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a form of cryptanalysis which studies cryptographic algorithms by observing how differences in input affect differences on output.
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A side-channel attack on implementations of encryption modes that use padding (e.g. ECB, CBC) that uses information leaked during decryption of tampered ciphertext values to derive information about t…
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Quantum cryptography describes the use of quantum mechanical effects to perform cryptographic tasks or to break cryptographic systems.
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The term "pen and paper" can practically be interpreted as "using no tools like electronic devices", since it targets cryptographic functions, schemes, and procedures which can be handled by humans wh…
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a known plaintext attack and uses a linear approximation to describe the behavior of the block cipher. Given sufficient pairs of plaintext and corresponding ciphertext, bits of…
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A digital signature algorithm based on the discrete logarithm problem, provably secure in the random oracle model.
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the art of chopping a secret into little bits, so that the secret can only be learned by possessing more than a threshold number of those bits.
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the central producer and manager of signals intelligence for the United States Government.
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Oblivious transfer refers to a cryptographic protocol in which a sender possesses a set of data and a receiver queries the sender for a particular member of that set in such a way that the sender does…
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the act of transforming information from one form to another. In cryptography, encoding is typically used to refer to an unkeyed process that does not provide any security in itself, but j…
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A backdoor in a cryptosystem or algorithm allows someone to obtain access to the decrypted data, without the need for the key/password that was used to encrypt the data.
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a historic polygraphic substitution cipher invented by Lester S. Hill in 1929.
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A public-key cryptosystem based on squaring modulo the product of two primes, introduced in 1979 by Michael O. Rabin and proven to have security reducible to the hardness of integer factorization. It …
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a dynamic, object-oriented, prototype-based, weakly typed language commonly used for scripting in web browsers. Despite the name, it is unrelated to the Java programming language and sha…
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The Merkle–Damgård construction — used in the design of many popular hash algorithms such as MD5, SHA1 and SHA2 — is a method of building collision-resistant cryptographic hash functions from collisio…
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Disk encryption protects information by encrypting every byte that is written to a HD or virtual disk volume.
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a set of inputs used to test new and/or established cryptographic designs and/or implementations.
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based on recording an encrypted and/or signed communication and replaying it at a later time.
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A symmetric block cipher algorithm with a 128 bit block size, and key sizes up to 256 bits.
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the process of making, adapting, or imitating objects, statistics, or documents with the intent to deceive.
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Data privacy refers to (cryptographic) methods to prevent the disclosure of sensitive (identifying) information of persons.
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said to be malleable if it is feasible to modify ciphertext to produce meaningful changes in the corresponding plaintext without knowing the encryption key.
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A length extension attack on a hash or message authentication code function, which allows extra information to be added to the input message without changing the output value.
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an asymmetric encryption algorithm and is a candidate for "post-quantum cryptography", as it is immune to attacks using Shor's algorithm and — more generally — measuring coset…
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an encryption mode, that builds a self-synchronizing stream-cipher from a block-cipher.
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a cryptosystem which always produces the same ciphertext for a given plaintext and key, even over separate executions of the encryption algorithm.
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a construction scheme for hash functions (and other symmetric primitives) based on an unkeyed permutation. The most famous example is Keccak, which won the SHA-3 competitio…
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a family of protocols in which one party presents a question ("challenge") and another party must provide a valid answer ("response") to be authenticated.
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a block cipher-based message authentication code algorithm.
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a cryptanalytic technique. Birthday attacks can be used to find collisions in a cryptographic hash function. For instance, suppose we have a hash function which, when supplied wit…
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a method of cryptanalysis against a cipher 1)expressing the cipher operations as a system of equations. 2)substituting in known data for some of the variables. 3)sol…
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A rainbow table allows inverting a cryptographic function (typically, a hash) at low cost, after a precomputation.
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an encryption mode, that builds a synchronous stream-cipher from a block-cipher.