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Quantum cryptography describes the use of quantum mechanical effects to perform cryptographic tasks or to break cryptographic systems.
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a password that is valid for only one session or transaction.
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a form of cryptanalysis which studies cryptographic algorithms by observing how differences in input affect differences on output.
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a family of stream ciphers proposed by Daniel J. Bernstein, as an evolution of Salsa20 with (conjecturally) improved resistance to cryptanalysis.
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In a blind signature scheme, the signer does not know what he is signing. This is an important building block of anonymous voting or digital cash schemes, because it allows an authority to control the…
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the act of transforming information from one form to another. In cryptography, encoding is typically used to refer to an unkeyed process that does not provide any security in itself, but j…
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an authentication protocol (described in RFC 4252) for securely getting access to a remote computer.
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a key derivation function specified in RFC5869.
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Oblivious transfer refers to a cryptographic protocol in which a sender possesses a set of data and a receiver queries the sender for a particular member of that set in such a way that the sender does…
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A side-channel attack on implementations of encryption modes that use padding (e.g. ECB, CBC) that uses information leaked during decryption of tampered ciphertext values to derive information about t…
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A length extension attack on a hash or message authentication code function, which allows extra information to be added to the input message without changing the output value.
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The Merkle–Damgård construction — used in the design of many popular hash algorithms such as MD5, SHA1 and SHA2 — is a method of building collision-resistant cryptographic hash functions from collisio…
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The term "pen and paper" can practically be interpreted as "using no tools like electronic devices", since it targets cryptographic functions, schemes, and procedures which can be handled by humans wh…
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A public-key cryptosystem based on squaring modulo the product of two primes, introduced in 1979 by Michael O. Rabin and proven to have security reducible to the hardness of integer factorization. It …
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a cryptanalytic technique. Birthday attacks can be used to find collisions in a cryptographic hash function. For instance, suppose we have a hash function which, when supplied wit…
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the art of chopping a secret into little bits, so that the secret can only be learned by possessing more than a threshold number of those bits.
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A digital signature algorithm based on the discrete logarithm problem, provably secure in the random oracle model.
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A backdoor in a cryptosystem or algorithm allows someone to obtain access to the decrypted data, without the need for the key/password that was used to encrypt the data.
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Disk encryption protects information by encrypting every byte that is written to a HD or virtual disk volume.
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a dynamic, object-oriented, prototype-based, weakly typed language commonly used for scripting in web browsers. Despite the name, it is unrelated to the Java programming language and sha…
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a historic polygraphic substitution cipher invented by Lester S. Hill in 1929.
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a set of inputs used to test new and/or established cryptographic designs and/or implementations.
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an asymmetric encryption algorithm and is a candidate for "post-quantum cryptography", as it is immune to attacks using Shor's algorithm and — more generally — measuring coset…
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A rainbow table allows inverting a cryptographic function (typically, a hash) at low cost, after a precomputation.
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the central producer and manager of signals intelligence for the United States Government.
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A pseudorandom generator (PRG) maps a random seed to a long pseudorandom stream and is the model for stream ciphers.
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the process of making, adapting, or imitating objects, statistics, or documents with the intent to deceive.
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a cryptosystem which always produces the same ciphertext for a given plaintext and key, even over separate executions of the encryption algorithm.
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a type of cryptography that allows an encrypted text to be decrypted in two or more ways, depending on which decryption key is used.
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Data privacy refers to (cryptographic) methods to prevent the disclosure of sensitive (identifying) information of persons.
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A distinguisher describes an adversary's advantage. In cryptography, an adversary's advantage is a measure of how successfully it can attack a cryptographic algorithm, by distinguishing it from an ide…
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The Enigma Machine was a piece of cryptographic hardware used by the German military during World War II; successful cryptanalysis was routinely applied against it and the scheme was considered broken…
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a family of protocols in which one party presents a question ("challenge") and another party must provide a valid answer ("response") to be authenticated.
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an encryption mode, that builds a self-synchronizing stream-cipher from a block-cipher.
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said to be malleable if it is feasible to modify ciphertext to produce meaningful changes in the corresponding plaintext without knowing the encryption key.
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Secure storage describes storing resources in a secure way, so that they are only available to authorized users and trusted networks.