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A side-channel attack on implementations of encryption modes that use padding (e.g. ECB, CBC) that uses information leaked during decryption of tampered ciphertext values to derive information about t…
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an optimized brute-force attack that significantly reduces the number of keys the attacker needs to try by utilizing a time-space trade-off. Work is done from the begi…
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a cryptographic hash function designed by Guido Bertoni, Joan Daemen, Michaël Peeters, and Gilles Van Assche.
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A security property wherein past messages are protected against future compromise of the master keys.
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a method of hierarchically hashing data. They allow efficient parallel hashing and updates and the possibility of verifying partial data.
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an authentication protocol (described in RFC 4252) for securely getting access to a remote computer.
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Anonymity describes the state of being unknown or unacknowledged.
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a family of stream ciphers proposed by Daniel J. Bernstein, as an evolution of Salsa20 with (conjecturally) improved resistance to cryptanalysis.
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a password that is valid for only one session or transaction.
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In a blind signature scheme, the signer does not know what he is signing. This is an important building block of anonymous voting or digital cash schemes, because it allows an authority to control the…
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A public-key cryptosystem based on squaring modulo the product of two primes, introduced in 1979 by Michael O. Rabin and proven to have security reducible to the hardness of integer factorization. It …
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A digital signature algorithm based on the discrete logarithm problem, provably secure in the random oracle model.
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the art of chopping a secret into little bits, so that the secret can only be learned by possessing more than a threshold number of those bits.
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a key derivation function specified in RFC5869.
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The Merkle–Damgård construction — used in the design of many popular hash algorithms such as MD5, SHA1 and SHA2 — is a method of building collision-resistant cryptographic hash functions from collisio…
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A length extension attack on a hash or message authentication code function, which allows extra information to be added to the input message without changing the output value.
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The term "pen and paper" can practically be interpreted as "using no tools like electronic devices", since it targets cryptographic functions, schemes, and procedures which can be handled by humans wh…
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a cryptanalytic technique. Birthday attacks can be used to find collisions in a cryptographic hash function. For instance, suppose we have a hash function which, when supplied wit…
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the process of making, adapting, or imitating objects, statistics, or documents with the intent to deceive.
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The Enigma Machine was a piece of cryptographic hardware used by the German military during World War II; successful cryptanalysis was routinely applied against it and the scheme was considered broken…
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Disk encryption protects information by encrypting every byte that is written to a HD or virtual disk volume.
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A rainbow table allows inverting a cryptographic function (typically, a hash) at low cost, after a precomputation.
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A backdoor in a cryptosystem or algorithm allows someone to obtain access to the decrypted data, without the need for the key/password that was used to encrypt the data.
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a form of cryptographic attack in which the attacker possesses only the encrypted message, with no corresponding plain text or segment of the key to work with.
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a cryptosystem which always produces the same ciphertext for a given plaintext and key, even over separate executions of the encryption algorithm.
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Data privacy refers to (cryptographic) methods to prevent the disclosure of sensitive (identifying) information of persons.
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a dynamic, object-oriented, prototype-based, weakly typed language commonly used for scripting in web browsers. Despite the name, it is unrelated to the Java programming language and sha…
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a set of inputs used to test new and/or established cryptographic designs and/or implementations.
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A symmetric block cipher algorithm with a 128 bit block size, and key sizes up to 256 bits.
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Secure storage describes storing resources in a secure way, so that they are only available to authorized users and trusted networks.
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a historic polygraphic substitution cipher invented by Lester S. Hill in 1929.
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the central producer and manager of signals intelligence for the United States Government.
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a method of encrypting data so that it's possible to make efficient inequality comparisons on the encrypted items without decrypting them.
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Irreversibly converting user-selected passwords into authentication tokens that can be safely stored e.g. in a user database. Typically done with a salted password-based key derivation function (PBKDF…
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a Password Based Key Derivation Function, which can be used to derive key data or derive a "password hash" from a salt and password.
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A pseudorandom generator (PRG) maps a random seed to a long pseudorandom stream and is the model for stream ciphers.