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For questions about Key Encapsulation Mechanisms (KEMs). KEMs are frequentely used in Cryptography to create public key encryption schemes and are a way to formalize a specific subset of hybrid encryp…
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In cryptography, a key derivation function (or KDF) derives one or more secret keys from a secret value such as a master key or other known information such as a password or passphrase using a pseudo-…
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Key exchange protocols allow two parties to produce a secret session key over a public channel.
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the process of generating keys for cryptographic purposes.
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A means of recovering cryptographic keys when the usual means for obtaining them is unavailable.; the ability to uncover the secret key to a cryptographic message.
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Using the same key for more than one purpose, e.g. to encrypt two messages or to encrypt and authenticate a message. Some cryptosystems may be vulnerable to attacks if keys are inappropriately reused.
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Key rotation refers to a schedule or process for changing the key material.
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usually secret information used as input to various kinds of cryptographic algorithms, like encryption, signature, MAC, to select the concrete transformation done by the algorithm.
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an algorithm that expands a relatively short master key to a relatively large expanded key for later use in an encryption and decryption algorithm.
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the size measured in bits of the key used in a cryptographic algorithm.
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the problem of determining which numbers from a given collection of numbers have been added together to yield a specific sum: used in cryptography to encipher (and sometimes decipher) mess…
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The attacker knows at least one sample of both the plain text and the cipher text.
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A length extension attack on a hash or message authentication code function, which allows extra information to be added to the input message without changing the output value.
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Linear Feedback Shift Register, a pseudorandom bit generator which can be efficiently implemented in hardware.
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"The sodium crypto library". A cryptographic multi-language-library with support for many modern cryptographic primitives, that is a fork of the NaCl library. The library focuses on providing easy-to-…
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a typically short alphanumeric code used as a software copy-protection mechanism, by requiring a user to enter a valid key before they can use the software.
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Small and/or fast ciphers and other cryptographic primitives designed for use in constrained environments, such as embedded MCUs and smart cards.
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a known plaintext attack and uses a linear approximation to describe the behavior of the block cipher. Given sufficient pairs of plaintext and corresponding ciphertext, bits of…
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Literature describes everything that has been written and/or visualized (here: in relation cryptography), which ranges from papers to books, and from publications to presentations.
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An attack on TLS and related protocols as of may 2015. This attack uses pre-computations to attack short prime diffie hellmann key exchange, primes with up to 1024 bits length are considered broken. I…
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a Feistel cipher where in each round the nonlinear function used is assumed to be chosen uniformly at random from the set of all such functions. These ciphers are mainly of th…
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(or message authentication code), a short piece of information used to authenticate a message, and the algorithm to create and check such information, using a secret key.
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said to be malleable if it is feasible to modify ciphertext to produce meaningful changes in the corresponding plaintext without knowing the encryption key.
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an active attack where the attacker is able to interpose himself between the sender and receiver. The attacker may monitor and/or modify some or all of the messag…
a 128-bit block cipher with variable key size of between 128 and 448 bits. It has a heterogeneous structure: several rounds of a cryptographic core are “jacketed” by un-keyed mixing rounds, to…
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Matrix multiplication indicates a row-by-column multiplication, where the entries in the Xth row of A are multiplied by the corresponding entries in the Yth column of B and then adding the results.
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an asymmetric encryption algorithm and is a candidate for "post-quantum cryptography", as it is immune to attacks using Shor's algorithm and — more generally — measuring coset…