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RFC 1320 — the MD4 message-digest algorithm — is a cryptographic hash function with a digest length is 128 bits, developed by Ronald Rivest in 1990.
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a hash function that is no longer considered secure from a cryptographic point of view. Therefore, it should only be used for backward compatibility.
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an optimized brute-force attack that significantly reduces the number of keys the attacker needs to try by utilizing a time-space trade-off. Work is done from the begi…
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the common description for a set of cryptographic problems related to playing a fair game over a distance without the need for any trusted third party.
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The Merkle–Damgård construction — used in the design of many popular hash algorithms such as MD5, SHA1 and SHA2 — is a method of building collision-resistant cryptographic hash functions from collisio…
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to "scramble" or mix the internal state of a hash (or cipher) function. The input to the function is the current internal state and the output of the function bec…
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routing protocols that create hard-to-trace communications by using a chain of proxy servers known as mixes which take in messages from multiple senders, shuffle them, and send them b…
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The Miyaguchi-Preneel scheme, based on a one-way compression function, was proposed around 1989 by Preneel, and independently by Miyaguchi.Ohta, and Iwata.
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ways of applying a block cipher to multi-block messages and enabling repeated use without changing the key.
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a system of arithmetic for integers, where numbers "wrap around" upon reaching a certain value… the modulus.
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Let $\Omega$ be a set of entities. An *access structure* $\mathcal{A}$ is a collection of nonempty subsets of the power set $P(\mathcal{A})$. This structure is called *monotone*, if $A\in\mathcal{A}$ …
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Multi-party computation (MPC) allows a set of parties, each with a private input, to securely and jointly perform any computation over their inputs.
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Multiple encryption means encrypting a message two or more times using either the same, or a different algorithm.
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the product of more than two primes.
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Needham–Schroeder refers to both, a symmetric key or a public key authentication protocol.
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so unimportant, that it isn't worth considering. For example, if a flaw in a cryptographic algorithm is considered to be negligible, it is insignificant to both the …
a variation of the McEliece Cryptosystem and is equivalent to McEliece from a security point of view, but encryption using Niederreiter is about ten times faster than …
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The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is a U.S. federal agency that works with industry to develop and apply technology, measurements, and standards.
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an arbitrary number or string used only once within the context of a specific cryptographic scheme. Nonces are used e.g. in authentication protocols to prevent replay attacks, as well as …
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the assurance that someone cannot deny something.
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Questions on the meaning, history, and usage of symbols and notation in cryptography. Please remember to mention where (book, paper, webpage, etc.) you encountered any notation you are asking about.
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the central producer and manager of signals intelligence for the United States Government.
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an encryption algorithm which is based on the shortest vector problem in a lattice.
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the study of the properties and construction of numbers, particularly integers. Prime numbers are of particular interest to number theorists and consequently cryptographers as they ar…
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a padding scheme which has been standardized in [PKCS #1v29](http://www.emc.com/collateral/white-papers/h11300-pkcs-1v2-2-rsa-cryptography-standard-wp.pdf) and…
a useful primitive that allows a client to hide its data access patterns from an untrusted server in storage outsourcing applications.
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Oblivious transfer refers to a cryptographic protocol in which a sender possesses a set of data and a receiver queries the sender for a particular member of that set in such a way that the sender does…
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The Offset CodeBook Mode, an authenticated encryption mode of operation for a block cipher.
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an encryption mode, that builds a synchronous stream-cipher from a block-cipher.
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A cipher which uses a different encryption key every time, as long as the message. The key is XOR'ed with the message to render the cipher text which can then be XOR'ed with the same key to get the p…
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a password that is valid for only one session or transaction.
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easy to compute but hard to invert (i.e. find preimages for). The existence of one-way functions implies the possibility of many useful cryptographic schemes. No one-way functions …
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A method for anonymous communications over a wide area network such as the Internet.