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A length extension attack on a hash or message authentication code function, which allows extra information to be added to the input message without changing the output value.
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Linear Feedback Shift Register, a pseudorandom bit generator which can be efficiently implemented in hardware.
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a typically short alphanumeric code used as a software copy-protection mechanism, by requiring a user to enter a valid key before they can use the software.
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Small and/or fast ciphers and other cryptographic primitives designed for use in constrained environments, such as embedded MCUs and smart cards.
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a known plaintext attack and uses a linear approximation to describe the behavior of the block cipher. Given sufficient pairs of plaintext and corresponding ciphertext, bits of…
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Literature describes everything that has been written and/or visualized (here: in relation cryptography), which ranges from papers to books, and from publications to presentations.
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a Feistel cipher where in each round the nonlinear function used is assumed to be chosen uniformly at random from the set of all such functions. These ciphers are mainly of th…
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(or message authentication code), a short piece of information used to authenticate a message, and the algorithm to create and check such information, using a secret key.
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said to be malleable if it is feasible to modify ciphertext to produce meaningful changes in the corresponding plaintext without knowing the encryption key.
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an active attack where the attacker is able to interpose himself between the sender and receiver. The attacker may monitor and/or modify some or all of the messag…
a 128-bit block cipher with variable key size of between 128 and 448 bits. It has a heterogeneous structure: several rounds of a cryptographic core are “jacketed” by un-keyed mixing rounds, to…
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Matrix multiplication indicates a row-by-column multiplication, where the entries in the Xth row of A are multiplied by the corresponding entries in the Yth column of B and then adding the results.
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an asymmetric encryption algorithm and is a candidate for "post-quantum cryptography", as it is immune to attacks using Shor's algorithm and — more generally — measuring coset…
RFC 1319 — The MD2 Message-Digest Algorithm is a cryptographic hash function which is no longer considered secure.
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RFC 1320 — the MD4 message-digest algorithm — is a cryptographic hash function with a digest length is 128 bits, developed by Ronald Rivest in 1990.
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a hash function that is no longer considered secure from a cryptographic point of view. Therefore, it should only be used for backward compatibility.
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an optimized brute-force attack that significantly reduces the number of keys the attacker needs to try by utilizing a time-space trade-off. Work is done from the begi…
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the common description for a set of cryptographic problems related to playing a fair game over a distance without the need for any trusted third party.
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The Merkle–Damgård construction — used in the design of many popular hash algorithms such as MD5, SHA1 and SHA2 — is a method of building collision-resistant cryptographic hash functions from collisio…
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to "scramble" or mix the internal state of a hash (or cipher) function. The input to the function is the current internal state and the output of the function bec…
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routing protocols that create hard-to-trace communications by using a chain of proxy servers known as mixes which take in messages from multiple senders, shuffle them, and send them b…
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The Miyaguchi-Preneel scheme, based on a one-way compression function, was proposed around 1989 by Preneel, and independently by Miyaguchi.Ohta, and Iwata.
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ways of applying a block cipher to multi-block messages and enabling repeated use without changing the key.
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a system of arithmetic for integers, where numbers "wrap around" upon reaching a certain value… the modulus.
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Let $\Omega$ be a set of entities. An *access structure* $\mathcal{A}$ is a collection of nonempty subsets of the power set $P(\mathcal{A})$. This structure is called *monotone*, if $A\in\mathcal{A}$ …
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Multi-party computation (MPC) allows a set of parties, each with a private input, to securely and jointly perform any computation over their inputs.
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Multiple encryption means encrypting a message two or more times using either the same, or a different algorithm.
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the product of more than two primes.
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Needham–Schroeder refers to both, a symmetric key or a public key authentication protocol.