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any form of cryptanalysis on data encrypted by a cipher that allows an attacker to distinguish the encrypted data from random data.
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a type of cryptography that allows an encrypted text to be decrypted in two or more ways, depending on which decryption key is used.
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a cryptosystem which always produces the same ciphertext for a given plaintext and key, even over separate executions of the encryption algorithm.
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PKCS #11 (Public-Key Cryptography Standard 11) defines a platform-independent API to cryptographic tokens, such as hardware security modules (HSM) and smart cards called *Cryptoki*.
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A rainbow table allows inverting a cryptographic function (typically, a hash) at low cost, after a precomputation.
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a prime number of the form 2p + 1, where p is also a prime.
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Pseudo-Random Generator
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A residue of order 2. A number $a$ for which the congruence $x^2 ≡ a \pmod m$ has a solution is called a quadratic residue modulo $m$.
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The Enigma Machine was a piece of cryptographic hardware used by the German military during World War II; successful cryptanalysis was routinely applied against it and the scheme was considered broken…
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Data privacy refers to (cryptographic) methods to prevent the disclosure of sensitive (identifying) information of persons.
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a one way membership function. It answers a query as to whether a potential candidate is a member of a set without revealing the individual members of the set.
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a function that is easy to perform one way, but has a secret that is required to perform the inverse calculation efficiently.
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A symmetric block-cipher algorithm with a 128-bit block size, and key sizes up to 256 bits.
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a block cipher mode of operation, which is most commonly used when random accessible data (like a hard disk or RAM) is to be encoded.
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the act of transforming information from one form to another. In cryptography, encoding is typically used to refer to an unkeyed process that does not provide any security in itself, but j…
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A distinguisher describes an adversary's advantage. In cryptography, an adversary's advantage is a measure of how successfully it can attack a cryptographic algorithm, by distinguishing it from an ide…
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Matrix multiplication indicates a row-by-column multiplication, where the entries in the Xth row of A are multiplied by the corresponding entries in the Yth column of B and then adding the results.
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a symmetric cipher. In number theory, the Pohlig–Hellman algorithm sometimes is a special-purpose algorithm for computing discrete logarithms in a multiplicative gro…
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a method of encrypting data so that it's possible to make efficient inequality comparisons on the encrypted items without decrypting them.
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In cryptanalysis and computer security, a dictionary attack is a technique for defeating a cipher or authentication mechanism by trying to determine its decryption key or pass-phrase by trying hundred…
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Coding theory studies the properties of codes and their fitness for specific applications, and typically involves the removal of redundancy and the detection and/or correction of errors in transmitted…
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the study of letters or groups of letters contained in a ciphertext in an attempt to partially reveal the message.
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a type of public-key encryption, where the party that has access to a secret key can learn a function from that key, which is used to encrypt and decrypt messages.
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a U.S. government computer security standard used to accredit cryptographic modules.
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a branch of mathematics usually concerned with the four operations (adding, subtracting, multiplication and division) of positive numbers.
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a cryptanalytic technique. Birthday attacks can be used to find collisions in a cryptographic hash function. For instance, suppose we have a hash function which, when supplied wit…
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a deterministic Pseudo-Random Bit Generator with security demonstrably reducible to that of integer factorization.
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an encryption mode, that builds a self-synchronizing stream-cipher from a block-cipher.
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a block cipher-based message authentication code algorithm.
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a form of cryptographic attack in which the attacker possesses only the encrypted message, with no corresponding plain text or segment of the key to work with.
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a method for a group such as a meeting or an electorate to make a decision or express an opinion.
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In cryptography, white box analysis means extracting a secret value from an implementation of a function that uses the value.
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A classical cipher in which the ciphertext is obtained by scrambling the letters of the plaintext.
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A commutative encryption system allows a message encrypted with two different keys to be decrypted using the keys in either order.