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a method of encrypting data so that it's possible to make efficient inequality comparisons on the encrypted items without decrypting them.
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PKCS #11 (Public-Key Cryptography Standard 11) defines a platform-independent API to cryptographic tokens, such as hardware security modules (HSM) and smart cards called *Cryptoki*.
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The HMAC-based one-time password algorithm defined in RFC 4226.
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a one way membership function. It answers a query as to whether a potential candidate is a member of a set without revealing the individual members of the set.
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a form of cryptographic attack in which the attacker possesses only the encrypted message, with no corresponding plain text or segment of the key to work with.
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a type of cryptography that allows an encrypted text to be decrypted in two or more ways, depending on which decryption key is used.
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A distinguisher describes an adversary's advantage. In cryptography, an adversary's advantage is a measure of how successfully it can attack a cryptographic algorithm, by distinguishing it from an ide…
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The Enigma Machine was a piece of cryptographic hardware used by the German military during World War II; successful cryptanalysis was routinely applied against it and the scheme was considered broken…
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the current time of an event that is recorded by a computer. You can use digital timestamps via a trusted authority to certify and protect your intellectual property or your …
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Secure storage describes storing resources in a secure way, so that they are only available to authorized users and trusted networks.
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the study of letters or groups of letters contained in a ciphertext in an attempt to partially reveal the message.
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non-cryptographic error-detecting code commonly used to detect accidental changes to raw data.
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Pseudo-Random Generator
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a padding scheme which has been standardized in [PKCS #1v29](http://www.emc.com/collateral/white-papers/h11300-pkcs-1v2-2-rsa-cryptography-standard-wp.pdf) and…
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"The sodium crypto library". A cryptographic multi-language-library with support for many modern cryptographic primitives, that is a fork of the NaCl library. The library focuses on providing easy-to-…
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A commutative encryption system allows a message encrypted with two different keys to be decrypted using the keys in either order.
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a U.S. government computer security standard used to accredit cryptographic modules.
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any form of cryptanalysis on data encrypted by a cipher that allows an attacker to distinguish the encrypted data from random data.
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a prime number of the form 2p + 1, where p is also a prime.
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a block cipher mode of operation, which is most commonly used when random accessible data (like a hard disk or RAM) is to be encoded.
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a method for a group such as a meeting or an electorate to make a decision or express an opinion.
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A classical cipher in which the ciphertext is obtained by scrambling the letters of the plaintext.
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a function that is easy to perform one way, but has a secret that is required to perform the inverse calculation efficiently.
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A symmetric block-cipher algorithm with a 128-bit block size, and key sizes up to 256 bits.
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In cryptanalysis and computer security, a dictionary attack is a technique for defeating a cipher or authentication mechanism by trying to determine its decryption key or pass-phrase by trying hundred…
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a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints.
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a type of public-key encryption, where the party that has access to a secret key can learn a function from that key, which is used to encrypt and decrypt messages.
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a language that defines the way data is sent across dissimilar communication systems.
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Small and/or fast ciphers and other cryptographic primitives designed for use in constrained environments, such as embedded MCUs and smart cards.
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an algorithm that expands a relatively short master key to a relatively large expanded key for later use in an encryption and decryption algorithm.
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a Password Based Key Derivation Function, which can be used to derive key data or derive a "password hash" from a salt and password.
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a cryptographic message authentication code (MAC) written by Daniel J. Bernstein. It can be used to verify the data integrity and the authenticity of a message.
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a symmetric cipher. In number theory, the Pohlig–Hellman algorithm sometimes is a special-purpose algorithm for computing discrete logarithms in a multiplicative gro…
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A residue of order 2. A number $a$ for which the congruence $x^2 ≡ a \pmod m$ has a solution is called a quadratic residue modulo $m$.