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a function that is easy to perform one way, but has a secret that is required to perform the inverse calculation efficiently.
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A symmetric block-cipher algorithm with a 128-bit block size, and key sizes up to 256 bits.
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a block cipher mode of operation, which is most commonly used when random accessible data (like a hard disk or RAM) is to be encoded.
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In a private set intersection (PSI) protocol two parties jointly compute the intersection of their private input sets.
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A rainbow table allows inverting a cryptographic function (typically, a hash) at low cost, after a precomputation.
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a symmetric cipher. In number theory, the Pohlig–Hellman algorithm sometimes is a special-purpose algorithm for computing discrete logarithms in a multiplicative gro…
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A symmetric block cipher algorithm with a 128 bit block size, and key sizes up to 256 bits.
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a stream cipher built on a pseudo-random function.
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A “Key Derivation Function” (KDF) derives one or more secret keys from a secret value such as a master key or other known information such as a password using a pseudo-random function.
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a branch of mathematics usually concerned with the four operations (adding, subtracting, multiplication and division) of positive numbers.
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Convergent encryption, also known as content hash keying, is simply encrypting a file using a symmetric encryption key which is the secure hash of the plaintext of the file.
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Data privacy refers to (cryptographic) methods to prevent the disclosure of sensitive (identifying) information of persons.
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a family of protocols in which one party presents a question ("challenge") and another party must provide a valid answer ("response") to be authenticated.
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Money that may be transferred electronically from one party to another during a transaction.
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An authenticated encryption mode of operation for a block cipher, based on the CTR mode and the OMAC/CMAC MAC algorithm.
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a U.S. government computer security standard used to accredit cryptographic modules.
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The Enigma Machine was a piece of cryptographic hardware used by the German military during World War II; successful cryptanalysis was routinely applied against it and the scheme was considered broken…
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A distinguisher describes an adversary's advantage. In cryptography, an adversary's advantage is a measure of how successfully it can attack a cryptographic algorithm, by distinguishing it from an ide…
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a cryptosystem which always produces the same ciphertext for a given plaintext and key, even over separate executions of the encryption algorithm.
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"host-proof" means that no unencrypted or insecure data is stored on the server or passed over the network.
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a form of cryptographic attack in which the attacker possesses only the encrypted message, with no corresponding plain text or segment of the key to work with.
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A commutative encryption system allows a message encrypted with two different keys to be decrypted using the keys in either order.
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Coding theory studies the properties of codes and their fitness for specific applications, and typically involves the removal of redundancy and the detection and/or correction of errors in transmitted…
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Matrix multiplication indicates a row-by-column multiplication, where the entries in the Xth row of A are multiplied by the corresponding entries in the Yth column of B and then adding the results.
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the assurance that someone cannot deny something.
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the art of chopping a secret into little bits, so that the secret can only be learned by possessing more than a threshold number of those bits.
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the deliberate act of creating obfuscated code by making source or machine code difficult to understand from a human point of view.
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A classical cipher in which the ciphertext is obtained by scrambling the letters of the plaintext.
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a method for a group such as a meeting or an electorate to make a decision or express an opinion.
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In cryptography, white box analysis means extracting a secret value from an implementation of a function that uses the value.
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a family of permutations where the key selects a particular permutation from that family. With a tweakable blockcipher both key and tweak are used to select a permutation. So tweak a…
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Small and/or fast ciphers and other cryptographic primitives designed for use in constrained environments, such as embedded MCUs and smart cards.
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a cryptographic message authentication code (MAC) written by Daniel J. Bernstein. It can be used to verify the data integrity and the authenticity of a message.
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A residue of order 2. A number $a$ for which the congruence $x^2 ≡ a \pmod m$ has a solution is called a quadratic residue modulo $m$.
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a block cipher-based message authentication code algorithm.