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a family of protocols in which one party presents a question ("challenge") and another party must provide a valid answer ("response") to be authenticated.
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an encryption mode, that builds a synchronous stream-cipher from a block-cipher.
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PKCS #11 (Public-Key Cryptography Standard 11) defines a platform-independent API to cryptographic tokens, such as hardware security modules (HSM) and smart cards called *Cryptoki*.
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A rainbow table allows inverting a cryptographic function (typically, a hash) at low cost, after a precomputation.
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a known plaintext attack and uses a linear approximation to describe the behavior of the block cipher. Given sufficient pairs of plaintext and corresponding ciphertext, bits of…
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A residue of order 2. A number $a$ for which the congruence $x^2 ≡ a \pmod m$ has a solution is called a quadratic residue modulo $m$.
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Pseudo-Random Generator
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a symmetric cipher. In number theory, the Pohlig–Hellman algorithm sometimes is a special-purpose algorithm for computing discrete logarithms in a multiplicative gro…
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In cryptanalysis and computer security, a dictionary attack is a technique for defeating a cipher or authentication mechanism by trying to determine its decryption key or pass-phrase by trying hundred…
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a type of public-key encryption, where the party that has access to a secret key can learn a function from that key, which is used to encrypt and decrypt messages.
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Secure remote password protocol
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A distinguisher describes an adversary's advantage. In cryptography, an adversary's advantage is a measure of how successfully it can attack a cryptographic algorithm, by distinguishing it from an ide…
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a block cipher-based message authentication code algorithm.
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Coding theory studies the properties of codes and their fitness for specific applications, and typically involves the removal of redundancy and the detection and/or correction of errors in transmitted…
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a deterministic Pseudo-Random Bit Generator with security demonstrably reducible to that of integer factorization.
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In a private set intersection (PSI) protocol two parties jointly compute the intersection of their private input sets.
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a method of encrypting data so that it's possible to make efficient inequality comparisons on the encrypted items without decrypting them.
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a prime number of the form 2p + 1, where p is also a prime.
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Matrix multiplication indicates a row-by-column multiplication, where the entries in the Xth row of A are multiplied by the corresponding entries in the Yth column of B and then adding the results.
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the process of generating keys for cryptographic purposes.
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a digraph substitution cipher. It employs a table where one letter of the alphabet is omitted, and the letters are arranged in a 5x5 grid.
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a cryptographic message authentication code (MAC) written by Daniel J. Bernstein. It can be used to verify the data integrity and the authenticity of a message.
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a cryptanalytic technique. Birthday attacks can be used to find collisions in a cryptographic hash function. For instance, suppose we have a hash function which, when supplied wit…
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a branch of mathematics usually concerned with the four operations (adding, subtracting, multiplication and division) of positive numbers.
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A commutative encryption system allows a message encrypted with two different keys to be decrypted using the keys in either order.
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Convergent encryption, also known as content hash keying, is simply encrypting a file using a symmetric encryption key which is the secure hash of the plaintext of the file.
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Money that may be transferred electronically from one party to another during a transaction.
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An authenticated encryption mode of operation for a block cipher, based on the CTR mode and the OMAC/CMAC MAC algorithm.
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The Enigma Machine was a piece of cryptographic hardware used by the German military during World War II; successful cryptanalysis was routinely applied against it and the scheme was considered broken…
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a U.S. government computer security standard used to accredit cryptographic modules.
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a function that is easy to perform one way, but has a secret that is required to perform the inverse calculation efficiently.
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a method for a group such as a meeting or an electorate to make a decision or express an opinion.
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In cryptography, white box analysis means extracting a secret value from an implementation of a function that uses the value.
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a block cipher mode of operation, which is most commonly used when random accessible data (like a hard disk or RAM) is to be encoded.
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A classical cipher in which the ciphertext is obtained by scrambling the letters of the plaintext.