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Data privacy refers to (cryptographic) methods to prevent the disclosure of sensitive (identifying) information of persons.
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non-cryptographic error-detecting code commonly used to detect accidental changes to raw data.
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A rainbow table allows inverting a cryptographic function (typically, a hash) at low cost, after a precomputation.
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an encryption mode, that builds a synchronous stream-cipher from a block-cipher.
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In a private set intersection (PSI) protocol two parties jointly compute the intersection of their private input sets.
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Pseudo-Random Generator
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A residue of order 2. A number $a$ for which the congruence $x^2 ≡ a \pmod m$ has a solution is called a quadratic residue modulo $m$.
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Matrix multiplication indicates a row-by-column multiplication, where the entries in the Xth row of A are multiplied by the corresponding entries in the Yth column of B and then adding the results.
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a method of encrypting data so that it's possible to make efficient inequality comparisons on the encrypted items without decrypting them.
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Coding theory studies the properties of codes and their fitness for specific applications, and typically involves the removal of redundancy and the detection and/or correction of errors in transmitted…
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In cryptanalysis and computer security, a dictionary attack is a technique for defeating a cipher or authentication mechanism by trying to determine its decryption key or pass-phrase by trying hundred…
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a type of public-key encryption, where the party that has access to a secret key can learn a function from that key, which is used to encrypt and decrypt messages.
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A symmetric block-cipher algorithm with a 128-bit block size, and key sizes up to 256 bits.
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a method for a group such as a meeting or an electorate to make a decision or express an opinion.
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a block cipher mode of operation, which is most commonly used when random accessible data (like a hard disk or RAM) is to be encoded.
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Money that may be transferred electronically from one party to another during a transaction.
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a cryptosystem which always produces the same ciphertext for a given plaintext and key, even over separate executions of the encryption algorithm.
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An authenticated encryption mode of operation for a block cipher, based on the CTR mode and the OMAC/CMAC MAC algorithm.
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The Enigma Machine was a piece of cryptographic hardware used by the German military during World War II; successful cryptanalysis was routinely applied against it and the scheme was considered broken…
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Convergent encryption, also known as content hash keying, is simply encrypting a file using a symmetric encryption key which is the secure hash of the plaintext of the file.
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A commutative encryption system allows a message encrypted with two different keys to be decrypted using the keys in either order.
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a branch of mathematics usually concerned with the four operations (adding, subtracting, multiplication and division) of positive numbers.
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a symmetric cipher. In number theory, the Pohlig–Hellman algorithm sometimes is a special-purpose algorithm for computing discrete logarithms in a multiplicative gro…
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PKCS #11 (Public-Key Cryptography Standard 11) defines a platform-independent API to cryptographic tokens, such as hardware security modules (HSM) and smart cards called *Cryptoki*.
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a cryptographic message authentication code (MAC) written by Daniel J. Bernstein. It can be used to verify the data integrity and the authenticity of a message.
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the assurance that someone cannot deny something.
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A “Key Derivation Function” (KDF) derives one or more secret keys from a secret value such as a master key or other known information such as a password using a pseudo-random function.
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a cryptanalytic technique. Birthday attacks can be used to find collisions in a cryptographic hash function. For instance, suppose we have a hash function which, when supplied wit…
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a block cipher-based message authentication code algorithm.
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a form of cryptographic attack in which the attacker possesses only the encrypted message, with no corresponding plain text or segment of the key to work with.
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the act of transforming information from one form to another. In cryptography, encoding is typically used to refer to an unkeyed process that does not provide any security in itself, but j…
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Calculating the value of a function for given inputs, especially, in the context of secure multi-party computation and/or homomorphic encryption, without disclosing the inputs to some or all parties c…
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a U.S. government computer security standard used to accredit cryptographic modules.
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"host-proof" means that no unencrypted or insecure data is stored on the server or passed over the network.
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a family of permutations where the key selects a particular permutation from that family. With a tweakable blockcipher both key and tweak are used to select a permutation. So tweak a…