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the process of making, adapting, or imitating objects, statistics, or documents with the intent to deceive.
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non-cryptographic error-detecting code commonly used to detect accidental changes to raw data.
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PKCS #11 (Public-Key Cryptography Standard 11) defines a platform-independent API to cryptographic tokens, such as hardware security modules (HSM) and smart cards called *Cryptoki*.
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a function that is easy to perform one way, but has a secret that is required to perform the inverse calculation efficiently.
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A symmetric block-cipher algorithm with a 128-bit block size, and key sizes up to 256 bits.
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Secure remote password protocol
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Data privacy refers to (cryptographic) methods to prevent the disclosure of sensitive (identifying) information of persons.
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a family of protocols in which one party presents a question ("challenge") and another party must provide a valid answer ("response") to be authenticated.
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the act of transforming information from one form to another. In cryptography, encoding is typically used to refer to an unkeyed process that does not provide any security in itself, but j…
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any form of cryptanalysis on data encrypted by a cipher that allows an attacker to distinguish the encrypted data from random data.
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A distinguisher describes an adversary's advantage. In cryptography, an adversary's advantage is a measure of how successfully it can attack a cryptographic algorithm, by distinguishing it from an ide…
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In cryptanalysis and computer security, a dictionary attack is a technique for defeating a cipher or authentication mechanism by trying to determine its decryption key or pass-phrase by trying hundred…
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a U.S. government computer security standard used to accredit cryptographic modules.
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a type of public-key encryption, where the party that has access to a secret key can learn a function from that key, which is used to encrypt and decrypt messages.
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a one way membership function. It answers a query as to whether a potential candidate is a member of a set without revealing the individual members of the set.
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a branch of mathematics usually concerned with the four operations (adding, subtracting, multiplication and division) of positive numbers.
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a deterministic Pseudo-Random Bit Generator with security demonstrably reducible to that of integer factorization.
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Matrix multiplication indicates a row-by-column multiplication, where the entries in the Xth row of A are multiplied by the corresponding entries in the Yth column of B and then adding the results.
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Pseudo-Random Generator
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a symmetric cipher. In number theory, the Pohlig–Hellman algorithm sometimes is a special-purpose algorithm for computing discrete logarithms in a multiplicative gro…
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a method of encrypting data so that it's possible to make efficient inequality comparisons on the encrypted items without decrypting them.
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A residue of order 2. A number $a$ for which the congruence $x^2 ≡ a \pmod m$ has a solution is called a quadratic residue modulo $m$.
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a prime number of the form 2p + 1, where p is also a prime.
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In cryptography, white box analysis means extracting a secret value from an implementation of a function that uses the value.
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a block cipher mode of operation, which is most commonly used when random accessible data (like a hard disk or RAM) is to be encoded.
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a method for a group such as a meeting or an electorate to make a decision or express an opinion.
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A classical cipher in which the ciphertext is obtained by scrambling the letters of the plaintext.
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In a private set intersection (PSI) protocol two parties jointly compute the intersection of their private input sets.
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a cryptographic message authentication code (MAC) written by Daniel J. Bernstein. It can be used to verify the data integrity and the authenticity of a message.
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a cryptanalytic technique. Birthday attacks can be used to find collisions in a cryptographic hash function. For instance, suppose we have a hash function which, when supplied wit…
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an encryption mode, that builds a self-synchronizing stream-cipher from a block-cipher.
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a block cipher-based message authentication code algorithm.
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Coding theory studies the properties of codes and their fitness for specific applications, and typically involves the removal of redundancy and the detection and/or correction of errors in transmitted…
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a form of cryptographic attack in which the attacker possesses only the encrypted message, with no corresponding plain text or segment of the key to work with.