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a cryptosystem which always produces the same ciphertext for a given plaintext and key, even over separate executions of the encryption algorithm.
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an encryption mode, that builds a synchronous stream-cipher from a block-cipher.
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a known plaintext attack and uses a linear approximation to describe the behavior of the block cipher. Given sufficient pairs of plaintext and corresponding ciphertext, bits of…
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A rainbow table allows inverting a cryptographic function (typically, a hash) at low cost, after a precomputation.
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A residue of order 2. A number $a$ for which the congruence $x^2 ≡ a \pmod m$ has a solution is called a quadratic residue modulo $m$.
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Pseudo-Random Generator
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Matrix multiplication indicates a row-by-column multiplication, where the entries in the Xth row of A are multiplied by the corresponding entries in the Yth column of B and then adding the results.
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In cryptanalysis and computer security, a dictionary attack is a technique for defeating a cipher or authentication mechanism by trying to determine its decryption key or pass-phrase by trying hundred…
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A symmetric block-cipher algorithm with a 128-bit block size, and key sizes up to 256 bits.
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Secure remote password protocol
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a method for a group such as a meeting or an electorate to make a decision or express an opinion.
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A distinguisher describes an adversary's advantage. In cryptography, an adversary's advantage is a measure of how successfully it can attack a cryptographic algorithm, by distinguishing it from an ide…
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Coding theory studies the properties of codes and their fitness for specific applications, and typically involves the removal of redundancy and the detection and/or correction of errors in transmitted…
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In a private set intersection (PSI) protocol two parties jointly compute the intersection of their private input sets.
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PKCS #11 (Public-Key Cryptography Standard 11) defines a platform-independent API to cryptographic tokens, such as hardware security modules (HSM) and smart cards called *Cryptoki*.
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a symmetric cipher. In number theory, the Pohlig–Hellman algorithm sometimes is a special-purpose algorithm for computing discrete logarithms in a multiplicative gro…
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a method of encrypting data so that it's possible to make efficient inequality comparisons on the encrypted items without decrypting them.
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a prime number of the form 2p + 1, where p is also a prime.
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a cryptographic message authentication code (MAC) written by Daniel J. Bernstein. It can be used to verify the data integrity and the authenticity of a message.
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Convergent encryption, also known as content hash keying, is simply encrypting a file using a symmetric encryption key which is the secure hash of the plaintext of the file.
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A commutative encryption system allows a message encrypted with two different keys to be decrypted using the keys in either order.
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a block cipher-based message authentication code algorithm.
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a branch of mathematics usually concerned with the four operations (adding, subtracting, multiplication and division) of positive numbers.
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a cryptanalytic technique. Birthday attacks can be used to find collisions in a cryptographic hash function. For instance, suppose we have a hash function which, when supplied wit…
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An authenticated encryption mode of operation for a block cipher, based on the CTR mode and the OMAC/CMAC MAC algorithm.
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Money that may be transferred electronically from one party to another during a transaction.
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the act of transforming information from one form to another. In cryptography, encoding is typically used to refer to an unkeyed process that does not provide any security in itself, but j…
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The Enigma Machine was a piece of cryptographic hardware used by the German military during World War II; successful cryptanalysis was routinely applied against it and the scheme was considered broken…
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In cryptography, white box analysis means extracting a secret value from an implementation of a function that uses the value.
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a block cipher mode of operation, which is most commonly used when random accessible data (like a hard disk or RAM) is to be encoded.
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a function that is easy to perform one way, but has a secret that is required to perform the inverse calculation efficiently.
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A classical cipher in which the ciphertext is obtained by scrambling the letters of the plaintext.
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a family of permutations where the key selects a particular permutation from that family. With a tweakable blockcipher both key and tweak are used to select a permutation. So tweak a…
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the deliberate act of creating obfuscated code by making source or machine code difficult to understand from a human point of view.
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Calculating the value of a function for given inputs, especially, in the context of secure multi-party computation and/or homomorphic encryption, without disclosing the inputs to some or all parties c…