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the central producer and manager of signals intelligence for the United States Government.
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an encryption algorithm which is based on the shortest vector problem in a lattice.
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the study of the properties and construction of numbers, particularly integers. Prime numbers are of particular interest to number theorists and consequently cryptographers as they ar…
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a padding scheme which has been standardized in [PKCS #1v29](http://www.emc.com/collateral/white-papers/h11300-pkcs-1v2-2-rsa-cryptography-standard-wp.pdf) and…
a useful primitive that allows a client to hide its data access patterns from an untrusted server in storage outsourcing applications.
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Oblivious transfer refers to a cryptographic protocol in which a sender possesses a set of data and a receiver queries the sender for a particular member of that set in such a way that the sender does…
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The Offset CodeBook Mode, an authenticated encryption mode of operation for a block cipher.
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an encryption mode, that builds a synchronous stream-cipher from a block-cipher.
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A cipher which uses a different encryption key every time, as long as the message. The key is XOR'ed with the message to render the cipher text which can then be XOR'ed with the same key to get the p…
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a password that is valid for only one session or transaction.
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easy to compute but hard to invert (i.e. find preimages for). The existence of one-way functions implies the possibility of many useful cryptographic schemes. No one-way functions …
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A method for anonymous communications over a wide area network such as the Internet.
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an open source implementation of the SSL and TLS protocols.
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a method of encrypting data so that it's possible to make efficient inequality comparisons on the encrypted items without decrypting them.
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Padding has two primary uses in cryptography, ensuring messages are the proper length necessary for certain ciphers (e.g., block ciphers) or to provide assurances not built into the core cipher (e.g.,…
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A side-channel attack on implementations of encryption modes that use padding (e.g. ECB, CBC) that uses information leaked during decryption of tampered ciphertext values to derive information about t…
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A public-key cryptosystem invented by Pascal Paillier in 1999.
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Pairing-based cryptography uses bilinear maps to create a gap group that allows efficient constructions of certain primitives.
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Encryption using a key derived from a password or passphrase entered by the user.
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secret keys which human beings can memorize.
a Password Based Key Derivation Function, which can be used to derive key data or derive a "password hash" from a salt and password.
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The Password-Based Key Derivation Function 2 (PBKDF2) is a method of securely deriving encryption keys from a passphrase entered by a user. It features an iteration count that can be deliberately adju…
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The term "pen and paper" can practically be interpreted as "using no tools like electronic devices", since it targets cryptographic functions, schemes, and procedures which can be handled by humans wh…
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Performance defines the abilities of a cipher in terms of processing throughput on various platforms, including its memory requirements.
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A way, esp. one of several possible variations, in which a set or number of things can be ordered or arranged.
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The OpenPGP encrypted data format (RFC 4880), and its implementations PGP and GnuPG.
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A PIR (Private Information Retrieval) protocol allows a user to retrieve an item from a server in possession of a database without revealing which item is retrieved.
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PKCS #11 (Public-Key Cryptography Standard 11) defines a platform-independent API to cryptographic tokens, such as hardware security modules (HSM) and smart cards called *Cryptoki*.
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Public-Key Cryptography Standard, number 8, describes the Private-Key Information Syntax Standard which is used to carry (encrypted or unencrypted) private certificate keypairs. See [RFC 5208](http://…
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short for Public Key Infrastructure. The foundation of a PKI is the certificate authority (CA), which issues digital certificates that authenticate the identity of organizations and individuals…
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Plausible deniability may refer $1)$ to deniable encryption schemes allowing to decrypt a ciphertext for a message $m$ to some distinct message $m'$ or $2)$ to a feature provided by deniable file syst…
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a digraph substitution cipher. It employs a table where one letter of the alphabet is omitted, and the letters are arranged in a 5x5 grid.