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RFC 1319 — The MD2 Message-Digest Algorithm is a cryptographic hash function which is no longer considered secure.
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RFC 1320 — the MD4 message-digest algorithm — is a cryptographic hash function with a digest length is 128 bits, developed by Ronald Rivest in 1990.
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a hash function that is no longer considered secure from a cryptographic point of view. Therefore, it should only be used for backward compatibility.
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an optimized brute-force attack that significantly reduces the number of keys the attacker needs to try by utilizing a time-space trade-off. Work is done from the begi…
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a property that, if proven to be possesed, makes an algorithm "immune" to time-memory tradeoffs, by "punishing" memory reductions. Usually algorithms possesing this property can't e…
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the common description for a set of cryptographic problems related to playing a fair game over a distance without the need for any trusted third party.
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The Merkle–Damgård construction — used in the design of many popular hash algorithms such as MD5, SHA1 and SHA2 — is a method of building collision-resistant cryptographic hash functions from collisio…
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to "scramble" or mix the internal state of a hash (or cipher) function. The input to the function is the current internal state and the output of the function bec…
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routing protocols that create hard-to-trace communications by using a chain of proxy servers known as mixes which take in messages from multiple senders, shuffle them, and send them b…
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The Miyaguchi-Preneel scheme, based on a one-way compression function, was proposed around 1989 by Preneel, and independently by Miyaguchi.Ohta, and Iwata.
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ways of applying a block cipher to multi-block messages and enabling repeated use without changing the key.
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a system of arithmetic for integers, where numbers "wrap around" upon reaching a certain value… the modulus.
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Let $\Omega$ be a set of entities. An *access structure* $\mathcal{A}$ is a collection of nonempty subsets of the power set $P(\mathcal{A})$. This structure is called *monotone*, if $A\in\mathcal{A}$ …
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Multi-party computation (MPC) allows a set of parties, each with a private input, to securely and jointly perform any computation over their inputs.
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Multiple encryption means encrypting a message two or more times using either the same, or a different algorithm.
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the product of more than two primes.
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Needham–Schroeder refers to both, a symmetric key or a public key authentication protocol.
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so unimportant, that it isn't worth considering. For example, if a flaw in a cryptographic algorithm is considered to be negligible, it is insignificant to both the …
a variation of the McEliece Cryptosystem and is equivalent to McEliece from a security point of view, but encryption using Niederreiter is about ten times faster than …
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The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is a U.S. federal agency that works with industry to develop and apply technology, measurements, and standards.
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an arbitrary number or string used only once within the context of a specific cryptographic scheme. Nonces are used e.g. in authentication protocols to prevent replay attacks, as well as …
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the assurance that someone cannot deny something.
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Questions on the meaning, history, and usage of symbols and notation in cryptography. Please remember to mention where (book, paper, webpage, etc.) you encountered any notation you are asking about.
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the central producer and manager of signals intelligence for the United States Government.
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an encryption algorithm which is based on the shortest vector problem in a lattice.
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the study of the properties and construction of numbers, particularly integers. Prime numbers are of particular interest to number theorists and consequently cryptographers as they ar…
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a padding scheme which has been standardized in [PKCS #1v29](http://www.emc.com/collateral/white-papers/h11300-pkcs-1v2-2-rsa-cryptography-standard-wp.pdf) and…
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a useful primitive that allows a client to hide its data access patterns from an untrusted server in storage outsourcing applications.
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Oblivious transfer refers to a cryptographic protocol in which a sender possesses a set of data and a receiver queries the sender for a particular member of that set in such a way that the sender does…
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The Offset CodeBook Mode, an authenticated encryption mode of operation for a block cipher.