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An authenticated encryption mode of operation for a block cipher, based on the CTR mode and the OMAC/CMAC MAC algorithm.
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the act of transforming information from one form to another. In cryptography, encoding is typically used to refer to an unkeyed process that does not provide any security in itself, but j…
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the study of letters or groups of letters contained in a ciphertext in an attempt to partially reveal the message.
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a digraph substitution cipher. It employs a table where one letter of the alphabet is omitted, and the letters are arranged in a 5x5 grid.
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A public-key cryptosystem based on squaring modulo the product of two primes, introduced in 1979 by Michael O. Rabin and proven to have security reducible to the hardness of integer factorization.
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Small and/or fast ciphers and other cryptographic primitives designed for use in constrained environments, such as embedded MCUs and smart cards.
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the assurance that someone cannot deny something.
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a padding scheme which has been standardized in [PKCS #1v29](http://www.emc.com/collateral/white-papers/h11300-pkcs-1v2-2-rsa-cryptography-standard-wp.pdf) and…
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the product of more than two primes.
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A “Key Derivation Function” (KDF) derives one or more secret keys from a secret value such as a master key or other known information such as a password using a pseudo-random function.
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an algorithm that expands a relatively short master key to a relatively large expanded key for later use in an encryption and decryption algorithm.
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Calculating the value of a function for given inputs, especially, in the context of secure multi-party computation and/or homomorphic encryption, without disclosing the inputs to some or all parties c…
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"host-proof" means that no unencrypted or insecure data is stored on the server or passed over the network.
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a language that defines the way data is sent across dissimilar communication systems.
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The Counter with CBC Mac mode, an authenticated encryption mode of operation for a block cipher based on the CTR mode and the CBC-MAC algorithm. .
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the deliberate act of creating obfuscated code by making source or machine code difficult to understand from a human point of view.
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A classical cipher in which the ciphertext is obtained by scrambling the letters of the plaintext.
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a family of permutations where the key selects a particular permutation from that family. With a tweakable blockcipher both key and tweak are used to select a permutation. So tweak a…
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Time-lock puzzles and other cryptographic schemes intended to ensure that a message cannot be read until a certain time has passed.
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a cryptographic hash function. It was designed for the SHA-3 competition where it became a finalist, but wasn't chosen as SHA-3.
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Secure storage describes storing resources in a secure way, so that they are only available to authorized users and trusted networks.
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An adversary model formally defines the power of the adversary. It includes specifics whether the adversary is deterministic/randomized, uniform/non-uniform, interactive/non-interactive and how he int…
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a family of cryptographically secure PRNGs; devised by Bruce Schneier and Niels Ferguson, who published it in 2003.
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a typically short alphanumeric code used as a software copy-protection mechanism, by requiring a user to enter a valid key before they can use the software.
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a measure of the relative frequency of letters in a cipher text sample, which facilitates cryptanalysis of poly-alphabetic ciphers by allowing determination of the per…
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The RACE Integrity Primitives Evaluation Message Digest (RIPEMD) is a family of cryptographic hash functions.
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a Password Based Key Derivation Function, which can be used to derive key data or derive a "password hash" from a salt and password.
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The International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) is a block cipher developed in 1991 by James Massey and Xuejia Lai.
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the common description for a set of cryptographic problems related to playing a fair game over a distance without the need for any trusted third party.