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A residue of order 2. A number $a$ for which the congruence $x^2 ≡ a \pmod m$ has a solution is called a quadratic residue modulo $m$.
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In cryptography, white box analysis means extracting a secret value from an implementation of a function that uses the value.
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An authenticated encryption mode of operation for a block cipher, based on the CTR mode and the OMAC/CMAC MAC algorithm.
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Money that may be transferred electronically from one party to another during a transaction.
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Technique mainly employed for factorization based cryptosystems to hide information. Usually blinding involves using a multiplicative homomorphic property of the cipher, it may be used to realize blin…
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a deterministic Pseudo-Random Bit Generator with security demonstrably reducible to that of integer factorization.
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a branch of mathematics usually concerned with the four operations (adding, subtracting, multiplication and division) of positive numbers.
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Coding theory studies the properties of codes and their fitness for specific applications, and typically involves the removal of redundancy and the detection and/or correction of errors in transmitted…
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a family of stream ciphers proposed by Daniel J. Bernstein, as an evolution of Salsa20 with (conjecturally) improved resistance to cryptanalysis.
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The Counter with CBC Mac mode, an authenticated encryption mode of operation for a block cipher based on the CTR mode and the CBC-MAC algorithm. .
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a digraph substitution cipher. It employs a table where one letter of the alphabet is omitted, and the letters are arranged in a 5x5 grid.
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In a private set intersection (PSI) protocol two parties jointly compute the intersection of their private input sets.
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Matrix multiplication indicates a row-by-column multiplication, where the entries in the Xth row of A are multiplied by the corresponding entries in the Yth column of B and then adding the results.
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concerned with sending messages via electronic signals in the most efficient and error-free way.
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an acronym for the Cryptographic Message Syntax, as defined in RFC5652
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Convergent encryption, also known as content hash keying, is simply encrypting a file using a symmetric encryption key which is the secure hash of the plaintext of the file.
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the deliberate act of creating obfuscated code by making source or machine code difficult to understand from a human point of view.
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a family of permutations where the key selects a particular permutation from that family. With a tweakable blockcipher both key and tweak are used to select a permutation. So tweak a…
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An adversary model formally defines the power of the adversary. It includes specifics whether the adversary is deterministic/randomized, uniform/non-uniform, interactive/non-interactive and how he int…
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evident if, when an input is changed slightly (for example, flipping a single bit) the output changes significantly (e.g., half the output bits flip).
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Fixed, more or less arbitrary parameter values that appear in the definitions of cryptographic schemes, such as fixed initialization vectors for hash functions or S-box tables for block ciphers.
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Calculating the value of a function for given inputs, especially, in the context of secure multi-party computation and/or homomorphic encryption, without disclosing the inputs to some or all parties c…
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the product of more than two primes.
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"host-proof" means that no unencrypted or insecure data is stored on the server or passed over the network.
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a measure of the relative frequency of letters in a cipher text sample, which facilitates cryptanalysis of poly-alphabetic ciphers by allowing determination of the per…
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a typically short alphanumeric code used as a software copy-protection mechanism, by requiring a user to enter a valid key before they can use the software.
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a family of cryptographically secure PRNGs; devised by Bruce Schneier and Niels Ferguson, who published it in 2003.
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