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A classical cipher in which the ciphertext is obtained by scrambling the letters of the plaintext.
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a function that is easy to perform one way, but has a secret that is required to perform the inverse calculation efficiently.
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the deliberate act of creating obfuscated code by making source or machine code difficult to understand from a human point of view.
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Time-lock puzzles and other cryptographic schemes intended to ensure that a message cannot be read until a certain time has passed.
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In cryptography, white box analysis means extracting a secret value from an implementation of a function that uses the value.
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The Counter with CBC Mac mode, an authenticated encryption mode of operation for a block cipher based on the CTR mode and the CBC-MAC algorithm. .
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An adversary model formally defines the power of the adversary. It includes specifics whether the adversary is deterministic/randomized, uniform/non-uniform, interactive/non-interactive and how he int…
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Small and/or fast ciphers and other cryptographic primitives designed for use in constrained environments, such as embedded MCUs and smart cards.
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the product of more than two primes.
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a digraph substitution cipher. It employs a table where one letter of the alphabet is omitted, and the letters are arranged in a 5x5 grid.
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a prime number of the form 2p + 1, where p is also a prime.
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A public-key cryptosystem based on squaring modulo the product of two primes, introduced in 1979 by Michael O. Rabin and proven to have security reducible to the hardness of integer factorization.
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The RACE Integrity Primitives Evaluation Message Digest (RIPEMD) is a family of cryptographic hash functions.
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the common description for a set of cryptographic problems related to playing a fair game over a distance without the need for any trusted third party.
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a typically short alphanumeric code used as a software copy-protection mechanism, by requiring a user to enter a valid key before they can use the software.
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an algorithm that expands a relatively short master key to a relatively large expanded key for later use in an encryption and decryption algorithm.
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a language that defines the way data is sent across dissimilar communication systems.
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a variant of ID-based cryptography intended to prevent the key escrow problem. Only a partial private key is generated by the key generation center (KGC) and the other …
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a deterministic Pseudo-Random Bit Generator with security demonstrably reducible to that of integer factorization.
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an encryption mode, that builds a self-synchronizing stream-cipher from a block-cipher.
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Copy protection or content protection covers various mechanism, such as DRM and software license keys, used to restrict the unauthorized copying or use of software or digital media.
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The International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) is a block cipher developed in 1991 by James Massey and Xuejia Lai.
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a measure of the relative frequency of letters in a cipher text sample, which facilitates cryptanalysis of poly-alphabetic ciphers by allowing determination of the per…
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the study of letters or groups of letters contained in a ciphertext in an attempt to partially reveal the message.
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a family of cryptographically secure PRNGs; devised by Bruce Schneier and Niels Ferguson, who published it in 2003.
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a cryptographic hash function. It was designed for the SHA-3 competition where it became a finalist, but wasn't chosen as SHA-3.
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Secure storage describes storing resources in a secure way, so that they are only available to authorized users and trusted networks.
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Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions, or short S-MIME, is a standard for public key encryption and signing of MIME data.
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Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 - Pre-Shared Key (also called WPA or WPA2 Personal) is a method of securing your network using WPA2 with the use of the optional Pre-Shared Key (PSK) authentication, which was…
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concerned with sending messages via electronic signals in the most efficient and error-free way.
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Fixed, more or less arbitrary parameter values that appear in the definitions of cryptographic schemes, such as fixed initialization vectors for hash functions or S-box tables for block ciphers.
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a one way membership function. It answers a query as to whether a potential candidate is a member of a set without revealing the individual members of the set.