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Design of cryptographic protocols, i.e. ways of using algorithms (primitives) to achieve one or more security goals like integrity, confidentiality, authenticity (maybe together with non-security-rela…
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A primitive or protocol with provable security is accompanied by a mathematical proof that shows how to reduce the security claims about the protocol to a set of assumptions.
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an efficiently-computable function which emulates a random oracle.
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In cryptography, a pseudo-random generator (PRG) is a deterministic procedure that maps a random seed to a longer pseudo-random string such that no statistical test can distinguish between the output …
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a function that cannot be distinguished (with practical effort) from a permutation selected at random with uniform probability from the family of all permutations …
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an encryption scheme using a pair of keys, one to encrypt and a second to decrypt a message. A special class of asymmetric ciphers are public-key ciphers, in which the encrypti…
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A residue of order 2. A number $a$ for which the congruence $x^2 ≡ a \pmod m$ has a solution is called a quadratic residue modulo $m$.
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Quantum cryptography describes the use of quantum mechanical effects to perform cryptographic tasks or to break cryptographic systems.
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A public-key cryptosystem based on squaring modulo the product of two primes, introduced in 1979 by Michael O. Rabin and proven to have security reducible to the hardness of integer factorization.
A rainbow table allows inverting a cryptographic function (typically, a hash) at low cost, after a precomputation.
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Usage of randomness (i.e. non-predictable data, usually in the form of bits or numbers) for cryptographic purposes.
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creation of (real or pseudo) random numbers (or bits).
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A model used in cryptographic security proofs, in which concrete primitives such as hash functions are replaced with a "random oracle": a hypothetical black box that maps its inputs to truly random ou…
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a fast and simple stream cipher used correctly in SSL and incorrectly in WEP.
a 128-bit block cipher, formerly an AES candidate, that makes heavy use of data-dependent rotations.
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a request to be provided with (links to) documentation, official papers, and specs related to one or more specific algorithms or cryptographic procedures, to provide a trusted b…
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Remote data checking protocols allow a client that has stored data at an untrusted server to efficiently verify that the server possesses the original data without retrieving it.
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based on recording an encrypted and/or signed communication and replaying it at a later time.
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material that can be referenced for further information on cryptography.
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a family of symmetric block-ciphers with block and keys sizes of 128, 160, 192, 224, or 256 bits.
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The RACE Integrity Primitives Evaluation Message Digest (RIPEMD) is a family of cryptographic hash functions.
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an asymmetric (e.g. public-key) cryptosystem, based on modular exponentiation with big exponents and modulus. RSA can be used both for signature and encryption.
a variant of RSA, meant to increase the RSA public modulus size while keeping computation cost moderate.
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a prime number of the form 2p + 1, where p is also a prime.
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a stream cipher built on a pseudo-random function.
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unique (usually random) data passed into a hash function for password storage to avoid the possible usage of rainbow tables or similar attacks. Salt will not help against dictionary or brute f…
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(or substitution boxes), components in many block ciphers used to substitute parts of the data in a non-linear way. While often fixed by the algorithm (like in DES and AES), sometimes they are key-dep…
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The Schnorr Identification Protocol relies upon the security of the Discrete Logarithm Problem. Schnorr's protocol was introduced after, and is comparable to, the identification protocol of Fiat and S…
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A digital signature algorithm based on the discrete logarithm problem, provably secure in the random oracle model.
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A slow and memory-intensive hash function designed for passwords
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Secret sharing refers to splitting a secret among multiple parties so that together they can reconstruct it. All parties, or just a threshold number of them, can be required for reconstruction. If few…
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