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a symmetric cipher. In number theory, the Pohlig–Hellman algorithm sometimes is a special-purpose algorithm for computing discrete logarithms in a multiplicative gro…
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a cryptographic message authentication code (MAC) written by Daniel J. Bernstein. It can be used to verify the data integrity and the authenticity of a message.
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Cryptography that will remain secure should large-scale quantum computing become feasible. Based on hard problems with no known polynomial-time quantum algorithm (e.g., Shor's algorithm).
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an encryption paradigm which gives a master secret key owner fine-grained control over access to encrypted data.
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Difficulty of finding an input string that hashes to a given value
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Pseudo-Random Generator
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an integer greater than 1 with no divisors other than itself and 1. Primes and prime products play an important role in public key cryptography.
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In a private set intersection (PSI) protocol two parties jointly compute the intersection of their private input sets.
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based on a mathematical problem that is moderate hard to solve but easy to verify.
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the detailed analysis of the security of an abstract or concrete cryptographic protocol.
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Design of cryptographic protocols, i.e. ways of using algorithms (primitives) to achieve one or more security goals like integrity, confidentiality, authenticity (maybe together with non-security-rela…
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A primitive or protocol with provable security is accompanied by a mathematical proof that shows how to reduce the security claims about the protocol to a set of assumptions.
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an efficiently-computable function which emulates a random oracle.
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In cryptography, a pseudo-random generator (PRG) is a deterministic procedure that maps a random seed to a longer pseudo-random string such that no statistical test can distinguish between the output …
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a function that cannot be distinguished (with practical effort) from a permutation selected at random with uniform probability from the family of all permutations …
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an encryption scheme using a pair of keys, one to encrypt and a second to decrypt a message. A special class of asymmetric ciphers are public-key ciphers, in which the encrypti…
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A residue of order 2. A number $a$ for which the congruence $x^2 ≡ a \pmod m$ has a solution is called a quadratic residue modulo $m$.
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Quantum cryptography describes the use of quantum mechanical effects to perform cryptographic tasks or to break cryptographic systems.
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A public-key cryptosystem based on squaring modulo the product of two primes, introduced in 1979 by Michael O. Rabin and proven to have security reducible to the hardness of integer factorization.
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A rainbow table allows inverting a cryptographic function (typically, a hash) at low cost, after a precomputation.
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Usage of randomness (i.e. non-predictable data, usually in the form of bits or numbers) for cryptographic purposes.
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creation of (real or pseudo) random numbers (or bits).
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A model used in cryptographic security proofs, in which concrete primitives such as hash functions are replaced with a "random oracle": a hypothetical black box that maps its inputs to truly random ou…
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a fast and simple stream cipher used correctly in SSL and incorrectly in WEP.
a 128-bit block cipher, formerly an AES candidate, that makes heavy use of data-dependent rotations.
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a request to be provided with (links to) documentation, official papers, and specs related to one or more specific algorithms or cryptographic procedures, to provide a trusted b…
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Remote data checking protocols allow a client that has stored data at an untrusted server to efficiently verify that the server possesses the original data without retrieving it.
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based on recording an encrypted and/or signed communication and replaying it at a later time.
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material that can be referenced for further information on cryptography.
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a family of symmetric block-ciphers with block and keys sizes of 128, 160, 192, 224, or 256 bits.