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concerned with sending messages via electronic signals in the most efficient and error-free way.
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an encryption mode, that builds a self-synchronizing stream-cipher from a block-cipher.
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evident if, when an input is changed slightly (for example, flipping a single bit) the output changes significantly (e.g., half the output bits flip).
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a language that defines the way data is sent across dissimilar communication systems.
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a 128-bit, symmetrical block cipher jointly developed by Mitsubishi and NTT of Japan.
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the problem of determining which numbers from a given collection of numbers have been added together to yield a specific sum: used in cryptography to encipher (and sometimes decipher) mess…
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A means of recovering cryptographic keys when the usual means for obtaining them is unavailable.; the ability to uncover the secret key to a cryptographic message.
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Needham–Schroeder refers to both, a symmetric key or a public key authentication protocol.
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routing protocols that create hard-to-trace communications by using a chain of proxy servers known as mixes which take in messages from multiple senders, shuffle them, and send them b…
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The Offset CodeBook Mode, an authenticated encryption mode of operation for a block cipher.
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A family of lightweight symmetric block-ciphers designed for good performance in hardware with block sizes ranging from 32 to 128 bits and key sizes ranging from 64 to 256 bits.
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a two-pass AEAD block cipher mode of operation described in RFC 5297. It can be used either for key-wrap (nonce-less deterministic authenticated encryption) or…
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The Schnorr Identification Protocol relies upon the security of the Discrete Logarithm Problem. Schnorr's protocol was introduced after, and is comparable to, the identification protocol of Fiat and S…
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Plausible deniability may refer $1)$ to deniable encryption schemes allowing to decrypt a ciphertext for a message $m$ to some distinct message $m'$ or $2)$ to a feature provided by deniable file syst…
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an encryption paradigm which gives a master secret key owner fine-grained control over access to encrypted data.
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A method for anonymous communications over a wide area network such as the Internet.
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to "scramble" or mix the internal state of a hash (or cipher) function. The input to the function is the current internal state and the output of the function bec…
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the process of generating keys for cryptographic purposes.
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a Feistel cipher where in each round the nonlinear function used is assumed to be chosen uniformly at random from the set of all such functions. These ciphers are mainly of th…
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a function $f$ from a set $X$ to a set $Y$ with the property that, for every $y$ in $Y$, there is exactly one $x$ in $X$ such that $f(x) = y$. It follows from …
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a cryptographic pseudorandom number generator intended to be used in a stream cipher.
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a key derivation function ([tag:kdf]) that uses a key in the computation.
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a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints.
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the act of transforming information from one form to another. In cryptography, encoding is typically used to refer to an unkeyed process that does not provide any security in itself, but j…
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The framework of universal composability (UC) is a general-purpose model for the analysis of cryptographic protocols.
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The three-pass protocol uses commutative encryption to let two people communicate privately without having to exchange keys in advance.
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a block cipher by David Wheeler and Roger Needham of the Cambridge Computer Laboratory; notable for its simplicity of description and implementation.
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a Crypto SDK was developed by Microsoft to support experimentation with the foundational features of the U-Prove technology. It is made available under the Apache 2.0 open-source license, w…
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Encryption of data represented in XML according to the W3C Specification.
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A family of lightweight symmetric block-ciphers designed for good performance in constrained software devices with block sizes ranging from 32 to 128 bits and key sizes ranging from 64 to 256 bits.
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