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A family of lightweight symmetric block-ciphers designed for good performance in hardware with block sizes ranging from 32 to 128 bits and key sizes ranging from 64 to 256 bits.
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a block cipher by David Wheeler and Roger Needham of the Cambridge Computer Laboratory; notable for its simplicity of description and implementation.
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evident if, when an input is changed slightly (for example, flipping a single bit) the output changes significantly (e.g., half the output bits flip).
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an encryption mode, that builds a self-synchronizing stream-cipher from a block-cipher.
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a 128-bit, symmetrical block cipher jointly developed by Mitsubishi and NTT of Japan.
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short for Dual Elliptic Curve Deterministic Random Bit Generator; a pseudorandom number generator based on the elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem.
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the act of transforming information from one form to another. In cryptography, encoding is typically used to refer to an unkeyed process that does not provide any security in itself, but j…
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concerned with sending messages via electronic signals in the most efficient and error-free way.
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The Schnorr Identification Protocol relies upon the security of the Discrete Logarithm Problem. Schnorr's protocol was introduced after, and is comparable to, the identification protocol of Fiat and S…
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the problem of determining which numbers from a given collection of numbers have been added together to yield a specific sum: used in cryptography to encipher (and sometimes decipher) mess…
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A means of recovering cryptographic keys when the usual means for obtaining them is unavailable.; the ability to uncover the secret key to a cryptographic message.
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a Feistel cipher where in each round the nonlinear function used is assumed to be chosen uniformly at random from the set of all such functions. These ciphers are mainly of th…
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The Offset CodeBook Mode, an authenticated encryption mode of operation for a block cipher.
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routing protocols that create hard-to-trace communications by using a chain of proxy servers known as mixes which take in messages from multiple senders, shuffle them, and send them b…
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Needham–Schroeder refers to both, a symmetric key or a public key authentication protocol.
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to "scramble" or mix the internal state of a hash (or cipher) function. The input to the function is the current internal state and the output of the function bec…
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A method for anonymous communications over a wide area network such as the Internet.
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a key derivation function ([tag:kdf]) that uses a key in the computation.
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the process of generating keys for cryptographic purposes.
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an encryption paradigm which gives a master secret key owner fine-grained control over access to encrypted data.
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Plausible deniability may refer $1)$ to deniable encryption schemes allowing to decrypt a ciphertext for a message $m$ to some distinct message $m'$ or $2)$ to a feature provided by deniable file syst…
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A PIR (Private Information Retrieval) protocol allows a user to retrieve an item from a server in possession of a database without revealing which item is retrieved.
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the study of letters or groups of letters contained in a ciphertext in an attempt to partially reveal the message.
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Elliptic Curve Integrated Encryption Scheme (ECIES) is a public key encryption system proposed by Victor Shoup in 2001.
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a block cipher designed by NTT. It is known to be insecure.
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a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints.
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If two numbers $b$ and $c$ have the property that their difference $b-c$ is integrally divisible by a number $m$ (i.e., $(b-c)/m$ is an integer), then $b$ and $c$ are said to be "congruent modulo $m$.…
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a cryptographic pseudorandom number generator intended to be used in a stream cipher.
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a function $f$ from a set $X$ to a set $Y$ with the property that, for every $y$ in $Y$, there is exactly one $x$ in $X$ such that $f(x) = y$. It follows from …