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to "scramble" or mix the internal state of a hash (or cipher) function. The input to the function is the current internal state and the output of the function bec…
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a Feistel cipher where in each round the nonlinear function used is assumed to be chosen uniformly at random from the set of all such functions. These ciphers are mainly of th…
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The Miyaguchi-Preneel scheme, based on a one-way compression function, was proposed around 1989 by Preneel, and independently by Miyaguchi.Ohta, and Iwata.
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Let $\Omega$ be a set of entities. An *access structure* $\mathcal{A}$ is a collection of nonempty subsets of the power set $P(\mathcal{A})$. This structure is called *monotone*, if $A\in\mathcal{A}$ …
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so unimportant, that it isn't worth considering. For example, if a flaw in a cryptographic algorithm is considered to be negligible, it is insignificant to both the …
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A PIR (Private Information Retrieval) protocol allows a user to retrieve an item from a server in possession of a database without revealing which item is retrieved.
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Remote data checking protocols allow a client that has stored data at an untrusted server to efficiently verify that the server possesses the original data without retrieving it.
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a two-pass AEAD block cipher mode of operation described in RFC 5297. It can be used either for key-wrap (nonce-less deterministic authenticated encryption) or…
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a key derivation function ([tag:kdf]) that uses a key in the computation.
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Something of mixed origin. In cryptography, typically a cipher system containing both public key and secret key component ciphers, where the public key system is used only to transport the key for the…
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the process of encrypting a message multiple times, either using the same or a different algorithm.
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the most important hardware component of a computer system, since it contains the circuitry necessary to interpret and execute instructions.
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If two numbers $b$ and $c$ have the property that their difference $b-c$ is integrally divisible by a number $m$ (i.e., $(b-c)/m$ is an integer), then $b$ and $c$ are said to be "congruent modulo $m$.…
Cramer-Shoup asymmetric encryption (an extension of ElGamal)
one of two common methods when using a public key infrastructure for maintaining access to servers in a network.
The Cryptographic Application Programming Interface is an application programming interface included with Microsoft Windows operating systems that provides services to enable developers to secure Wind…
a type of side channel attack which exploits sounds emitted by computers or machines.
a possible goal of cryptography, where the idea is to restrict access to documents, equipment, locations, or keys to individuals who are authorized such access.
Elliptic Curve Integrated Encryption Scheme (ECIES) is a public key encryption system proposed by Victor Shoup in 2001.
short-lived, like (for example) an ephemeral key, which is a key that only exists within the lifetime of a communication session.
A homomorphic signature scheme (also malleable signature scheme) is a digital signature scheme that allows computations on signed data (without access to the secret signing key) while preserving the…
a family of binary, linear error-correcting codes that are used to detect and correct data transmission errors. Hamming codes are able detect up to two simultaneous bit errors and ca…
SHA-3 Competition (2007-2012) was a competition initiated by NIST as a call for a new cryptographic hash algorithm for standardization purposes.
a 64-bit block cipher developed by the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA).
a 128-bit block cipher, formerly an AES candidate, that makes heavy use of data-dependent rotations.
a variant of RSA, meant to increase the RSA public modulus size while keeping computation cost moderate.
Public-Key Cryptography Standard, number 8, describes the Private-Key Information Syntax Standard which is used to carry (encrypted or unencrypted) private certificate keypairs. See [RFC 5208](http://…
a variation of the McEliece Cryptosystem and is equivalent to McEliece from a security point of view, but encryption using Niederreiter is about ten times faster than …
a useful primitive that allows a client to hide its data access patterns from an untrusted server in storage outsourcing applications.
a 128-bit block cipher with variable key size of between 128 and 448 bits. It has a heterogeneous structure: several rounds of a cryptographic core are “jacketed” by un-keyed mixing rounds, to…
RFC 1319 — The MD2 Message-Digest Algorithm is a cryptographic hash function which is no longer considered secure.
Traitor tracing describes an ability of specific cryptographic schemes that helps trace the source of leaks.