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a type of public-key encryption scheme that allows to transform ciphertexts encrypted under Alice's public key into ciphertexts decryptable by Bob
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Public-Key Cryptography Standard, number 8, describes the Private-Key Information Syntax Standard which is used to carry (encrypted or unencrypted) private certificate keypairs. See [RFC 5208](http://…
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A PIR (Private Information Retrieval) protocol allows a user to retrieve an item from a server in possession of a database without revealing which item is retrieved.
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so unimportant, that it isn't worth considering. For example, if a flaw in a cryptographic algorithm is considered to be negligible, it is insignificant to both the …
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The Offset CodeBook Mode, an authenticated encryption mode of operation for a block cipher.
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to "scramble" or mix the internal state of a hash (or cipher) function. The input to the function is the current internal state and the output of the function bec…
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a Feistel cipher where in each round the nonlinear function used is assumed to be chosen uniformly at random from the set of all such functions. These ciphers are mainly of th…
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the problem of determining which numbers from a given collection of numbers have been added together to yield a specific sum: used in cryptography to encipher (and sometimes decipher) mess…
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The International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) is a block cipher developed in 1991 by James Massey and Xuejia Lai.
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a cryptanalysis method based on analysis of the correlation between the power consumption of a chip (in a smart card for example) and the secret key it contai…
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Questions related to the teaching and learning of cryptography.
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Copy protection or content protection covers various mechanism, such as DRM and software license keys, used to restrict the unauthorized copying or use of software or digital media.
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Carter-Wegman MACs build a provably secure MAC from a universal hash
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For questions about bitsliced (SIMD-within-a-register / SWAR) implementation of ciphers and other cryptographic primitives.
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a function $f$ from a set $X$ to a set $Y$ with the property that, for every $y$ in $Y$, there is exactly one $x$ in $X$ such that $f(x) = y$. It follows from …
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short-lived, like (for example) an ephemeral key, which is a key that only exists within the lifetime of a communication session.
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Something of mixed origin. In cryptography, typically a cipher system containing both public key and secret key component ciphers, where the public key system is used only to transport the key for the…
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a useful primitive that allows a client to hide its data access patterns from an untrusted server in storage outsourcing applications.
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Needham–Schroeder refers to both, a symmetric key or a public key authentication protocol.
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a toy variant of the DES cipher introduced by Edward F. Schaefer in 1996 for educational purposes. It has an 8-bit block size and a 10-bit key, and uses two rounds, with two 4x2 bit …
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The three-pass protocol uses commutative encryption to let two people communicate privately without having to exchange keys in advance.
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A family of lightweight symmetric block-ciphers designed for good performance in constrained software devices with block sizes ranging from 32 to 128 bits and key sizes ranging from 64 to 256 bits.
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the average amount of ciphertext a computationally unlimited attacker needs to obtain in order to uniquely determine the correct decryption.
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a variant of the Salsa20 cipher with a longer nonce.
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Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions, or short S-MIME, is a standard for public key encryption and signing of MIME data.
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Remote data checking protocols allow a client that has stored data at an untrusted server to efficiently verify that the server possesses the original data without retrieving it.
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Plausible deniability may refer $1)$ to deniable encryption schemes allowing to decrypt a ciphertext for a message $m$ to some distinct message $m'$ or $2)$ to a feature provided by deniable file syst…
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A homomorphic signature scheme (also malleable signature scheme) is a digital signature scheme that allows computations on signed data (without access to the secret signing key) while preserving the…
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An attack on TLS and related protocols as of may 2015. This attack uses pre-computations to attack short prime diffie hellmann key exchange, primes with up to 1024 bits length are considered broken. I…
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RFC 1320 — the MD4 message-digest algorithm — is a cryptographic hash function with a digest length is 128 bits, developed by Ronald Rivest in 1990.
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Let $\Omega$ be a set of entities. An *access structure* $\mathcal{A}$ is a collection of nonempty subsets of the power set $P(\mathcal{A})$. This structure is called *monotone*, if $A\in\mathcal{A}$ …