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The term "pen and paper" can practically be interpreted as "using no tools like electronic devices", since it targets cryptographic functions, schemes, and procedures which can be handled by humans wh…
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Confidentiality in a very strong sense. Ciphers reaching perfect-secrecy can't be broken to disclose informations over the plaintext from the ciphertext, even with unlimited computing power. The most …
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Performance defines the abilities of a cipher in terms of processing throughput on various platforms, including its memory requirements.
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A way, esp. one of several possible variations, in which a set or number of things can be ordered or arranged.
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The OpenPGP encrypted data format (RFC 4880), and its implementations PGP and GnuPG.
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A PIR (Private Information Retrieval) protocol allows a user to retrieve an item from a server in possession of a database without revealing which item is retrieved.
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PKCS #11 (Public-Key Cryptography Standard 11) defines a platform-independent API to cryptographic tokens, such as hardware security modules (HSM) and smart cards called *Cryptoki*.
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Public-Key Cryptography Standard, number 8, describes the Private-Key Information Syntax Standard which is used to carry (encrypted or unencrypted) private certificate keypairs. See [RFC 5208](http://…
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short for Public Key Infrastructure. The foundation of a PKI is the certificate authority (CA), which issues digital certificates that authenticate the identity of organizations and individuals…
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Plausible deniability may refer $1)$ to deniable encryption schemes allowing to decrypt a ciphertext for a message $m$ to some distinct message $m'$ or $2)$ to a feature provided by deniable file syst…
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a digraph substitution cipher. It employs a table where one letter of the alphabet is omitted, and the letters are arranged in a 5x5 grid.
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a symmetric cipher. In number theory, the Pohlig–Hellman algorithm sometimes is a special-purpose algorithm for computing discrete logarithms in a multiplicative gro…
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a cryptographic message authentication code (MAC) written by Daniel J. Bernstein. It can be used to verify the data integrity and the authenticity of a message.
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Cryptography that will remain secure should large-scale quantum computing become feasible. Based on hard problems with no known polynomial-time quantum algorithm (e.g., Shor's algorithm).
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an encryption paradigm which gives a master secret key owner fine-grained control over access to encrypted data.
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Difficulty of finding an input string that hashes to a given value
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a lightweight block cipher with a 64-bit block size and an 80 or 128 bit key.
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A pseudorandom generator (PRG) maps a random seed to a long pseudorandom stream and is the model for stream ciphers.
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an integer greater than 1 with no divisors other than itself and 1. Primes and prime products play an important role in public key cryptography.
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In a private set intersection (PSI) protocol two parties jointly compute the intersection of their private input sets.
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the use of randomness in an encryption algorithm, so that when encrypting the same message several times it will, in general, yield different ciphertexts.
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based on a mathematical problem that is moderate hard to solve but easy to verify.
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the detailed analysis of the security of an abstract or concrete cryptographic protocol.
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Design of cryptographic protocols, i.e. ways of using algorithms (primitives) to achieve one or more security goals like integrity, confidentiality, authenticity (maybe together with non-security-rela…
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A primitive or protocol with provable security is accompanied by a mathematical proof that shows how to reduce the security claims about the protocol to a set of assumptions.
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a type of public-key encryption scheme that allows to transform ciphertexts encrypted under Alice's public key into ciphertexts decryptable by Bob
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an efficiently-computable function which emulates a random oracle.