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A rainbow table allows inverting a cryptographic function (typically, a hash) at low cost, after a precomputation.
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Usage of randomness (i.e. non-predictable data, usually in the form of bits or numbers) for cryptographic purposes.
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creation of (real or pseudo) random numbers (or bits).
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A model used in cryptographic security proofs, in which concrete primitives such as hash functions are replaced with a "random oracle": a hypothetical black box that maps its inputs to truly random ou…
a symmetric-key block cipher designed by Ron Rivest in 1987.
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a fast and simple stream cipher used correctly in SSL and incorrectly in WEP.
a 128-bit block cipher, formerly an AES candidate, that makes heavy use of data-dependent rotations.
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a request to be provided with (links to) documentation, official papers, and specs related to one or more specific algorithms or cryptographic procedures, to provide a trusted b…
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Remote data checking protocols allow a client that has stored data at an untrusted server to efficiently verify that the server possesses the original data without retrieving it.
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based on recording an encrypted and/or signed communication and replaying it at a later time.
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material that can be referenced for further information on cryptography.
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a family of symmetric block-ciphers with block and keys sizes of 128, 160, 192, 224, or 256 bits.
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The RACE Integrity Primitives Evaluation Message Digest (RIPEMD) is a family of cryptographic hash functions.
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an asymmetric (e.g. public-key) cryptosystem, based on modular exponentiation with big exponents and modulus. RSA can be used both for signature and encryption.
a variant of RSA, meant to increase the RSA public modulus size while keeping computation cost moderate.
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a prime number of the form 2p + 1, where p is also a prime.
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a stream cipher built on a pseudo-random function.
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unique (usually random) data passed into a hash function for password storage to avoid the possible usage of rainbow tables or similar attacks. Salt will not help against dictionary or brute f…
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(or substitution boxes), components in many block ciphers used to substitute parts of the data in a non-linear way. While often fixed by the algorithm (like in DES and AES), sometimes they are key-dep…
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The Schnorr Identification Protocol relies upon the security of the Discrete Logarithm Problem. Schnorr's protocol was introduced after, and is comparable to, the identification protocol of Fiat and S…
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A digital signature algorithm based on the discrete logarithm problem, provably secure in the random oracle model.
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A slow and memory-intensive hash function designed for passwords
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a toy variant of the DES cipher introduced by Edward F. Schaefer in 1996 for educational purposes. It has an 8-bit block size and a 10-bit key, and uses two rounds, with two 4x2 bit …
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a subfield of cryptography which constructs and analyzes cryptosystems that preserve the ability to 'search' over encrypted data, for some definition of 'search'.
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Secret sharing refers to splitting a secret among multiple parties so that together they can reconstruct it. All parties, or just a threshold number of them, can be required for reconstruction. If few…
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Secure storage describes storing resources in a secure way, so that they are only available to authorized users and trusted networks.
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Questions about formal definitions of "security" for various cryptographic schemes (e.g. perfect secrecy, semantic security, ciphertext indistinguishability, etc.)
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produces ciphertext that, by itself, does not reveal information about the original message besides its length
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A symmetric block cipher algorithm with a 128 bit block size, and key sizes up to 256 bits.
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a hash function that will soon be two generations old. It is no longer considered secure and should only be used for backward compatibility.