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Public-Key Cryptography Standard, number 8, describes the Private-Key Information Syntax Standard which is used to carry (encrypted or unencrypted) private certificate keypairs. See [RFC 5208](http://…
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short for Public Key Infrastructure. The foundation of a PKI is the certificate authority (CA), which issues digital certificates that authenticate the identity of organizations and individuals…
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Plausible deniability may refer $1)$ to deniable encryption schemes allowing to decrypt a ciphertext for a message $m$ to some distinct message $m'$ or $2)$ to a feature provided by deniable file syst…
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a digraph substitution cipher. It employs a table where one letter of the alphabet is omitted, and the letters are arranged in a 5x5 grid.
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a symmetric cipher. In number theory, the Pohlig–Hellman algorithm sometimes is a special-purpose algorithm for computing discrete logarithms in a multiplicative gro…
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a cryptographic message authentication code (MAC) written by Daniel J. Bernstein. It can be used to verify the data integrity and the authenticity of a message.
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Cryptography that will remain secure should large-scale quantum computing become feasible. Based on hard problems with no known polynomial-time quantum algorithm (e.g., Shor's algorithm).
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an encryption paradigm which gives a master secret key owner fine-grained control over access to encrypted data.
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Difficulty of finding an input string that hashes to a given value
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a lightweight block cipher with a 64-bit block size and an 80 or 128 bit key.
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A pseudorandom generator (PRG) maps a random seed to a long pseudorandom stream and is the model for stream ciphers.
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an integer greater than 1 with no divisors other than itself and 1. Primes and prime products play an important role in public key cryptography.
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In a private set intersection (PSI) protocol two parties jointly compute the intersection of their private input sets.
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the use of randomness in an encryption algorithm, so that when encrypting the same message several times it will, in general, yield different ciphertexts.
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based on a mathematical problem that is moderate hard to solve but easy to verify.
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the detailed analysis of the security of an abstract or concrete cryptographic protocol.
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Design of cryptographic protocols, i.e. ways of using algorithms (primitives) to achieve one or more security goals like integrity, confidentiality, authenticity (maybe together with non-security-rela…
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A primitive or protocol with provable security is accompanied by a mathematical proof that shows how to reduce the security claims about the protocol to a set of assumptions.
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a type of public-key encryption scheme that allows to transform ciphertexts encrypted under Alice's public key into ciphertexts decryptable by Bob
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an efficiently-computable function which emulates a random oracle.
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In cryptography, a pseudo-random generator (PRG) is a deterministic procedure that maps a random seed to a longer pseudo-random string such that no statistical test can distinguish between the output …
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a function that cannot be distinguished (with practical effort) from a permutation selected at random with uniform probability from the family of all permutations …
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an encryption scheme using a pair of keys, one to encrypt and a second to decrypt a message. A special class of asymmetric ciphers are public-key ciphers, in which the encrypti…
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A residue of order 2. A number $a$ for which the congruence $x^2 ≡ a \pmod m$ has a solution is called a quadratic residue modulo $m$.
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Quantum cryptography describes the use of quantum mechanical effects to perform cryptographic tasks or to break cryptographic systems.
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A public-key cryptosystem based on squaring modulo the product of two primes, introduced in 1979 by Michael O. Rabin and proven to have security reducible to the hardness of integer factorization. It …
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A rainbow table allows inverting a cryptographic function (typically, a hash) at low cost, after a precomputation.