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an integer greater than 1 with no divisors other than itself and 1. Primes and prime products play an important role in public key cryptography.
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In a private set intersection (PSI) protocol two parties jointly compute the intersection of their private input sets.
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the use of randomness in an encryption algorithm, so that when encrypting the same message several times it will, in general, yield different ciphertexts.
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based on a mathematical problem that is moderate hard to solve but easy to verify.
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the detailed analysis of the security of an abstract or concrete cryptographic protocol.
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Design of cryptographic protocols, i.e. ways of using algorithms (primitives) to achieve one or more security goals like integrity, confidentiality, authenticity (maybe together with non-security-rela…
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A primitive or protocol with provable security is accompanied by a mathematical proof that shows how to reduce the security claims about the protocol to a set of assumptions.
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an efficiently-computable function which emulates a random oracle.
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In cryptography, a pseudo-random generator (PRG) is a deterministic procedure that maps a random seed to a longer pseudo-random string such that no statistical test can distinguish between the output …
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a function that cannot be distinguished (with practical effort) from a permutation selected at random with uniform probability from the family of all permutations …
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an encryption scheme using a pair of keys, one to encrypt and a second to decrypt a message. A special class of asymmetric ciphers are public-key ciphers, in which the encrypti…
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A residue of order 2. A number $a$ for which the congruence $x^2 ≡ a \pmod m$ has a solution is called a quadratic residue modulo $m$.
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Quantum cryptography describes the use of quantum mechanical effects to perform cryptographic tasks or to break cryptographic systems.
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A public-key cryptosystem based on squaring modulo the product of two primes, introduced in 1979 by Michael O. Rabin and proven to have security reducible to the hardness of integer factorization. It …
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A rainbow table allows inverting a cryptographic function (typically, a hash) at low cost, after a precomputation.
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Usage of randomness (i.e. non-predictable data, usually in the form of bits or numbers) for cryptographic purposes.
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creation of (real or pseudo) random numbers (or bits).
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A model used in cryptographic security proofs, in which concrete primitives such as hash functions are replaced with a "random oracle": a hypothetical black box that maps its inputs to truly random ou…
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a symmetric-key block cipher designed by Ron Rivest in 1987.
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a fast and simple stream cipher used correctly in SSL and incorrectly in WEP.
a 128-bit block cipher, formerly an AES candidate, that makes heavy use of data-dependent rotations.
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a request to be provided with (links to) documentation, official papers, and specs related to one or more specific algorithms or cryptographic procedures, to provide a trusted b…
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Remote data checking protocols allow a client that has stored data at an untrusted server to efficiently verify that the server possesses the original data without retrieving it.
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based on recording an encrypted and/or signed communication and replaying it at a later time.
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material that can be referenced for further information on cryptography.
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a family of symmetric block-ciphers with block and keys sizes of 128, 160, 192, 224, or 256 bits.
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The RACE Integrity Primitives Evaluation Message Digest (RIPEMD) is a family of cryptographic hash functions.