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Copy protection or content protection covers various mechanism, such as DRM and software license keys, used to restrict the unauthorized copying or use of software or digital media.
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Questions related to the teaching and learning of cryptography.
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The Schnorr Identification Protocol relies upon the security of the Discrete Logarithm Problem. Schnorr's protocol was introduced after, and is comparable to, the identification protocol of Fiat and S…
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a secure coprocessor found in some x86-based computers that provides cryptographic operations and system integrity measurements.
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Encrypting images so that they can be decrypted without using a computer, e.g. by superimposing two random-looking images.
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The framework of universal composability (UC) is a general-purpose model for the analysis of cryptographic protocols.
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the average amount of ciphertext a computationally unlimited attacker needs to obtain in order to uniquely determine the correct decryption.
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A famous program that was the de-facto standard for open-source disk encryption for many years. It was discontinued on 28 may 2014. TrueCrypt has undergone some security audits which haven't found sev…
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a toy variant of the DES cipher introduced by Edward F. Schaefer in 1996 for educational purposes. It has an 8-bit block size and a 10-bit key, and uses two rounds, with two 4x2 bit …
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The three-pass protocol uses commutative encryption to let two people communicate privately without having to exchange keys in advance.
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a cryptanalysis method based on analysis of the correlation between the power consumption of a chip (in a smart card for example) and the secret key it contai…
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short-lived, like (for example) an ephemeral key, which is a key that only exists within the lifetime of a communication session.
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a function $f$ from a set $X$ to a set $Y$ with the property that, for every $y$ in $Y$, there is exactly one $x$ in $X$ such that $f(x) = y$. It follows from …
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Needham–Schroeder refers to both, a symmetric key or a public key authentication protocol.
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Public-Key Cryptography Standard, number 8, describes the Private-Key Information Syntax Standard which is used to carry (encrypted or unencrypted) private certificate keypairs. See [RFC 5208](http://…
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A PIR (Private Information Retrieval) protocol allows a user to retrieve an item from a server in possession of a database without revealing which item is retrieved.
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Something of mixed origin. In cryptography, typically a cipher system containing both public key and secret key component ciphers, where the public key system is used only to transport the key for the…
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A homomorphic signature scheme (also malleable signature scheme) is a digital signature scheme that allows computations on signed data (without access to the secret signing key) while preserving the…
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a Feistel cipher where in each round the nonlinear function used is assumed to be chosen uniformly at random from the set of all such functions. These ciphers are mainly of th…
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An attack on TLS and related protocols as of may 2015. This attack uses pre-computations to attack short prime diffie hellmann key exchange, primes with up to 1024 bits length are considered broken. I…
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to "scramble" or mix the internal state of a hash (or cipher) function. The input to the function is the current internal state and the output of the function bec…
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RFC 1320 — the MD4 message-digest algorithm — is a cryptographic hash function with a digest length is 128 bits, developed by Ronald Rivest in 1990.
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Let $\Omega$ be a set of entities. An *access structure* $\mathcal{A}$ is a collection of nonempty subsets of the power set $P(\mathcal{A})$. This structure is called *monotone*, if $A\in\mathcal{A}$ …
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Plausible deniability may refer $1)$ to deniable encryption schemes allowing to decrypt a ciphertext for a message $m$ to some distinct message $m'$ or $2)$ to a feature provided by deniable file syst…
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a useful primitive that allows a client to hide its data access patterns from an untrusted server in storage outsourcing applications.
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Design philosophy for ciphers. ARX solely relies on additions, rotations and XORs to build ciphers and similar algorithms. This usually constructs ciphers that are highly resistant against side-channe…
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a cryptographic pseudorandom number generator intended to be used in a stream cipher.
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an SQL-Aware encrypted database system from MIT
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Carter-Wegman MACs build a provably secure MAC from a universal hash
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a family of binary, linear error-correcting codes that are used to detect and correct data transmission errors. Hamming codes are able detect up to two simultaneous bit errors and ca…
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Diffusion refers to the property of an encryption primitive that small changes in the plaintext result in big changes in the ciphertext and vice-versa.
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Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions, or short S-MIME, is a standard for public key encryption and signing of MIME data.