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a block cipher by David Wheeler and Roger Needham of the Cambridge Computer Laboratory; notable for its simplicity of description and implementation.
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a Crypto SDK was developed by Microsoft to support experimentation with the foundational features of the U-Prove technology. It is made available under the Apache 2.0 open-source license, w…
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The three-pass protocol uses commutative encryption to let two people communicate privately without having to exchange keys in advance.
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A family of lightweight symmetric block-ciphers designed for good performance in constrained software devices with block sizes ranging from 32 to 128 bits and key sizes ranging from 64 to 256 bits.
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a toy variant of the DES cipher introduced by Edward F. Schaefer in 1996 for educational purposes. It has an 8-bit block size and a 10-bit key, and uses two rounds, with two 4x2 bit …
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The framework of universal composability (UC) is a general-purpose model for the analysis of cryptographic protocols.
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RFC 1320 — the MD4 message-digest algorithm — is a cryptographic hash function with a digest length is 128 bits, developed by Ronald Rivest in 1990.
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to "scramble" or mix the internal state of a hash (or cipher) function. The input to the function is the current internal state and the output of the function bec…
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routing protocols that create hard-to-trace communications by using a chain of proxy servers known as mixes which take in messages from multiple senders, shuffle them, and send them b…
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a key derivation function ([tag:kdf]) that uses a key in the computation.
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Key rotation refers to a schedule or process for changing the key material.
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Plausible deniability may refer $1)$ to deniable encryption schemes allowing to decrypt a ciphertext for a message $m$ to some distinct message $m'$ or $2)$ to a feature provided by deniable file syst…
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A PIR (Private Information Retrieval) protocol allows a user to retrieve an item from a server in possession of a database without revealing which item is retrieved.
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A method for anonymous communications over a wide area network such as the Internet.
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The Cryptographic Application Programming Interface is an application programming interface included with Microsoft Windows operating systems that provides services to enable developers to secure Wind…
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a function $f$ from a set $X$ to a set $Y$ with the property that, for every $y$ in $Y$, there is exactly one $x$ in $X$ such that $f(x) = y$. It follows from …
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a possible goal of cryptography, where the idea is to restrict access to documents, equipment, locations, or keys to individuals who are authorized such access.
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a cryptographic pseudorandom number generator intended to be used in a stream cipher.
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short-lived, like (for example) an ephemeral key, which is a key that only exists within the lifetime of a communication session.
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Diffusion refers to the property of an encryption primitive that small changes in the plaintext result in big changes in the ciphertext and vice-versa.
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a block cipher designed by NTT. It is known to be insecure.
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A homomorphic signature scheme (also malleable signature scheme) is a digital signature scheme that allows computations on signed data (without access to the secret signing key) while preserving the…
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Something of mixed origin. In cryptography, typically a cipher system containing both public key and secret key component ciphers, where the public key system is used only to transport the key for the…
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an extension of DES that attempts to foil brute force attacks
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Property of cryptographic primitives to propagate errors. This usually means that an "error" in one block propagates into the following blocks, thereby flipping bits there or completely scrambling tho…
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a cryptographic hash function. It was designed for the SHA-3 competition where it became a finalist, but wasn't chosen as SHA-3.
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Technique mainly employed for factorization based cryptosystems to hide information. Usually blinding involves using a multiplicative homomorphic property of the cipher, it may be used to realize blin…
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the most important hardware component of a computer system, since it contains the circuitry necessary to interpret and execute instructions.
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Remote data checking protocols allow a client that has stored data at an untrusted server to efficiently verify that the server possesses the original data without retrieving it.
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Public-Key Cryptography Standard, number 8, describes the Private-Key Information Syntax Standard which is used to carry (encrypted or unencrypted) private certificate keypairs. See [RFC 5208](http://…