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RFC 1320 — the MD4 message-digest algorithm — is a cryptographic hash function with a digest length is 128 bits, developed by Ronald Rivest in 1990.
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to "scramble" or mix the internal state of a hash (or cipher) function. The input to the function is the current internal state and the output of the function bec…
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a block cipher-based message authentication code algorithm.
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If two numbers $b$ and $c$ have the property that their difference $b-c$ is integrally divisible by a number $m$ (i.e., $(b-c)/m$ is an integer), then $b$ and $c$ are said to be "congruent modulo $m$.…
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Fixed, more or less arbitrary parameter values that appear in the definitions of cryptographic schemes, such as fixed initialization vectors for hash functions or S-box tables for block ciphers.
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the most important hardware component of a computer system, since it contains the circuitry necessary to interpret and execute instructions.
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short-lived, like (for example) an ephemeral key, which is a key that only exists within the lifetime of a communication session.
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the process of encrypting a message multiple times, either using the same or a different algorithm.
a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints.
a family of binary, linear error-correcting codes that are used to detect and correct data transmission errors. Hamming codes are able detect up to two simultaneous bit errors and ca…
A homomorphic signature scheme (also malleable signature scheme) is a digital signature scheme that allows computations on signed data (without access to the secret signing key) while preserving the…
one of two common methods when using a public key infrastructure for maintaining access to servers in a network.
The Cryptographic Application Programming Interface is an application programming interface included with Microsoft Windows operating systems that provides services to enable developers to secure Wind…
a type of side channel attack which exploits sounds emitted by computers or machines.
a possible goal of cryptography, where the idea is to restrict access to documents, equipment, locations, or keys to individuals who are authorized such access.
evident if, when an input is changed slightly (for example, flipping a single bit) the output changes significantly (e.g., half the output bits flip).
RFC 1319 — The MD2 Message-Digest Algorithm is a cryptographic hash function which is no longer considered secure.
a 128-bit block cipher with variable key size of between 128 and 448 bits. It has a heterogeneous structure: several rounds of a cryptographic core are “jacketed” by un-keyed mixing rounds, to…
a Feistel cipher where in each round the nonlinear function used is assumed to be chosen uniformly at random from the set of all such functions. These ciphers are mainly of th…
Remote data checking protocols allow a client that has stored data at an untrusted server to efficiently verify that the server possesses the original data without retrieving it.
a 64-bit block cipher developed by the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA).
Public-Key Cryptography Standard, number 8, describes the Private-Key Information Syntax Standard which is used to carry (encrypted or unencrypted) private certificate keypairs. See [RFC 5208](http://…
a 128-bit block cipher, formerly an AES candidate, that makes heavy use of data-dependent rotations.
a VPN tunneling protocol that allows the tunneling of PPP or L2TP traffic over an SSL connection.
a set of cryptographic algorithms promulgated by the National Security Agency as part of its Cryptographic Modernization Program.
A family of tweakable symmetric block-cipher algorithms with 256, 512 and 1024 bit block and key sizes.