In modern cryptography, IND-CPA is the lowest security we want. We want at least IND-CCAx security from encryption mode. Their relation can be found in
- 2007 Authenticated Encryption: Relations among notions and analysis of the generic composition paradigm, Mihir Bellare & Chanathip Namprempre
All classical block cipher modes of operations (CTR,CBC,OFB,CFB,PCBC), as stated confidentiality only modes of operations in Wikipedia can achieve at most Ind-CPA.
It is easy to go beyond IND-CPA security with a secure MAC like HMAC, KMAC, etc., or even on can achieve Authentication Encryption mode where the provided security is more than Ind-CCAx.
Are there ways to achieve Ind-CCA without a MAC?