In this paper by Alperin-Sheriff and Peikert from 2014, the authors state

To date, bootstrapping remains the only known way of obtaining fully homomorphic encryption for arbitrary unbounded computations.

Is this still correct today or are there new schemes that don't require bootstrapping for the same effect?

Are there any newer FHE schemes that don't have noise accumulation and therefore don't need bootstrapping?

  • $\begingroup$ I found this paper from 2021 where the authors state the same thing but don't back it up with sources. They might refer to the same paper from 2014. $\endgroup$
    – Celdor
    Dec 21, 2022 at 0:26

1 Answer 1


Looking at this survey published around the time of your question (Nov. 2022), the "unleveled" (unbounded) schemes described seem to all utilize bootstrapping.

This (pre-print) is a paper from this year claiming to do without the bootstrapping. Beyond my humble understanding though :)


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