The Inhomogeneous Short Integer Solution (ISIS) problem is as follows: given an integer $q$, a matrix $A\in \mathbb{Z}^{n\times m}_q$, a vector $b\in \mathbb{Z}^{n}_q$, and a real $\beta$, find an integer vector $e\in\mathbb{Z}^m$ such that $Ae=b\mod q$ and $0<\Vert e\Vert_2\leq\beta$.

if we assume that $n=m$ is this average-case problem is still hard for a well-chosen $(n,q,\beta)$?

because (I have tested many matrices and solved it) in that case a Gaussian Elimination can be performed given $(A,b)$.


1 Answer 1


Generally gaussian elimination is ruled out through choosing $\beta$ appropriately, as in general Gaussian elimination will find you a solution $e'$ such that $Ae'\equiv b\bmod q$, but this solution is generally not short. In particular $\beta > \sqrt{n\log q}$ suffices, and $\beta\geq q$ is trivial to find.

See for example this paper, though it is for SIS (rather than ISIS). I am under the (admittedly vague) impression that the problems have similar hardness.

  • $\begingroup$ yeah in general is not short but if the rank of the matrix mod $q$ is $n$ then it is injective hence it will finds a short solution $\endgroup$
    – Don Freecs
    Jan 16, 2023 at 22:42
  • $\begingroup$ I don't believe that reasoning holds. See Theorem 1.1. of the linked paper. In general $m$ tends to not matter for lattice problems that much, especially in the regime where $m = \Theta(n)$ (where you are). Note that larger $m$ can matter some for "combinatorial" attacks, but this tends to require the other parameters to be rather "extreme". $\endgroup$
    – Mark Schultz-Wu
    Jan 16, 2023 at 22:52
  • $\begingroup$ for $m=n$ in Vector Space theory, we could see $A$ as a Map from $V=GF(q) ^n$ to itself (i.e. endomorphism) since the dimension of $V$ is $n$ and with the knowledge of that $A$ has a $det(A)$ coprime with $q$ then $A$ is invertible modulo $q$ hence it is a bijection in particular $A$ will be injective $\endgroup$
    – Don Freecs
    Jan 16, 2023 at 23:27
  • $\begingroup$ yes, but $A^{-1}b$ need not have small norm. Note that the norm is taken over $\mathbb{Z}$, so is separate from the $\mathbb{Z}_q$ arithmetic. That being said, I am less familiar with the ISIS problem. But for SIS this is not an issue, provided $\beta$ is chosen appropriately. As I imagine ISIS is only harder than SIS (it shouldn't be easier to find short vectors in an arbitrary coset of a lattice, rather than the lattice itself), I would imagine what I'm saying to still hold. $\endgroup$
    – Mark Schultz-Wu
    Jan 17, 2023 at 21:50
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ @DonFreecs $A^{-1}b =:w$ will be a potentially non-short vector. You're right that if you know some short element of the SIS latticee $s$, then any element of $t \pm \mathbb{Z} s$ would be a solution to the ISIS problem, and you can probably optimize over the choice of scalar $\mathbb{Z}$ to find a short solution. This required knowing short solution $s$ to the SIS problem though, which we both agree doesn't seem realistic (when appropriately parameterized). $\endgroup$
    – Mark Schultz-Wu
    Jan 19, 2023 at 1:02

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