Yes, up to a point.
When your password is used for encryption/decryption, it first goes through a key derivation phase, to convert your password into a key suitable for encryption (e.g an AES key).
The key derivation function is tuneable, it is designed to be deliberately slow to compute. And you can choose how slow. We should assume the attacker is more efficient than we are and uses better/more suitable hardware to break the KDF, so brute force time will be much less than your decryption time*number of possible passwords. Yet we still expect a strong linear relationship between the two.
However, a high entopy password is still desired, various improvements in cryptanalisis can speed up the KDF, so if I had to chose purely on security (disregarding time for honest decryption, or cost of saving the secret) between twice the password space or twice the rounds of a KDF, I would choose twice the password space any day of the week.