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I'm implementing 128-bit AES-GCM (but only the encryption/AES-CTR aspect).

When I set the Secret Key, Plaintext and IV to Test Case 2, page 27 of the GCM spec (see below) I get the wrong value for the output of the cipher block (before we XOR).

https://csrc.nist.rip/groups/ST/toolkit/BCM/documents/proposedmodes/gcm/gcm-spec.pdf

Inputs:

K       00000000000000000000000000000000
P       00000000000000000000000000000000
IV      000000000000000000000000
Y1      00000000000000000000000000000002

I should get E(K,Y1) = 0388dace60b6a392f328c2b971b2fe78, instead I get 26d50f485a30408d5af47a5736292450

This is my pseudocode:

// Expand iv to 16 bytes
iv[15] = 1     // 'increment'

// Skip cipher block for Y0

for each plaintext block:
    Y1 = increment(iv)    
    aes_key_expansion = CreateKeyExpansion(Y1)        
    E(K,Y1) = AES_128_Cipher(K, aes_key_expansion)            

The logic within CreateKeyExpansion() and AES_128_Cipher() works correctly, as i've tested them with ECB.

Can anyone help where I am going wrong?

The 11 (128 bit AES) key expansion is:

0  00000000000000000000000000000002
1  62637763626377636263776362637761
2  9b9698c9f9f5efaa9b9698c9f9f5efa8
3  79495a5080bcb5fa1b2a2d33e2dfc29b
4  ef6c4ec86fd0fb3274fad6019625149a
5  c096f658af460d6adbbcdb6b4d99cff1
6  0e1c57bba15a5ad17ae681ba377f4e4b
7  9c33e4213d69bef0478f3f4a70f07101
8  90909870adf92680ea7619ca9a8668cb
9  cfd587c8622ca148885ab88212dcd049
10 7fa5bc011d891d4995d3a5cb870f7582
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    $\begingroup$ For this first block, Y1 should be { 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 2 } - is it? $\endgroup$
    – poncho
    Feb 15, 2023 at 18:58
  • $\begingroup$ @poncho Yeah it is,. The first 'increment' is from setting iv[15] = 1 and the '2' comes from the call to Y1 = increment(iv). Just to confirm, I have checked this in the debugger. $\endgroup$
    – user997112
    Feb 15, 2023 at 18:59
  • $\begingroup$ @poncho I've also added the output of the key expansion, if that helps $\endgroup$
    – user997112
    Feb 15, 2023 at 19:03

1 Answer 1

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    aes_key_expansion = CreateKeyExpansion(Y1)        
    E(K,Y1) = AES_128_Cipher(K, aes_key_expansion) 

I believe this is problem; you appear to be encrypting k using Y1 as an AES key. Instead, what you should do is expand the AES key Y, and then encrypt Y1 with that expanded key.

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  • $\begingroup$ I am creating the key expansion using Y1 and then encrypting K with this generated expansion. Do you mean Y1 and K need to swap roles? Btw, for ECB I do this: key_expansion = CreateKeyExpansion(K) and then AES_128_Cipher(P, key_expansion) $\endgroup$
    – user997112
    Feb 15, 2023 at 19:09
  • $\begingroup$ I've just swapped K and Y1 and I now get the correct answer. If you could confirm that's what you meant. $\endgroup$
    – user997112
    Feb 15, 2023 at 19:17
  • 2
    $\begingroup$ @user997112: yes, that's what I meant. Remember: you use the same AES key for all the AES operations within a GCM operation $\endgroup$
    – poncho
    Feb 15, 2023 at 19:49

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