Are there any cryptographically strong hash function and encryption function(s) where hash(encryptA(data)) == encryptB(hash(data)). The functions encryptA() and encryptB() may be identical, or just related.

If no such functions currently exist, are there theoretical reasons (relating to the one-way nature of hash functions) why they cannot exist?

  • 1
    $\begingroup$ So, basically you are asking are there two permutation that a permutation before hash equal to another permutation after hash. We hope not such simple relation exist in cryptographically secure hash functions. $\endgroup$
    – kelalaka
    Commented Oct 13, 2023 at 12:58
  • $\begingroup$ Thanks, that shows why it would not be a good hash function. Related: crypto.stackexchange.com/questions/108282/… $\endgroup$
    – fadedbee
    Commented Oct 13, 2023 at 13:05

1 Answer 1


I'll show a strange result under some assumptions.

Consider the simplified notation;

$$H(E(d,k_1)) = E(H(d),k_2) \label{r1}\tag{1}$$

and for simplicity, assume the hash output is 128-bit.

Now, consider that one finds two 128-bit inputs $a \neq b$ such that $H(a) = H(b)$, i.e. we have a colliding pair.

The right-hand side of eqn. (\ref{r1}) with the input $a$ and $b$. Then

$$E(H(a),k_2) = E(H(b),k_2) \label{r2}\tag{2}$$

since $a$ and $b$ is a collision. Now consider the left side;

$$H(E(a,k_1)) = H(E(b,k_1)) \label{r3}\tag{3}$$ This equality holds since the right sides are equal.

Now, for this equality, either

  • $E(a,k_1) = E(b,k_1) $ This is not possible since $a \neq b$

  • then we may have $E(a,k_1) \neq E(b,k_1) $ I.e. we have very unlucky that $E(a,k_1) = b$ and $E(b,k_1) = a$.

    If we do not consider that unlucky case ($\dfrac{1}{2^{128}}$ probability), than we have another colliding pair!

Now, use them again to get another pair, the use them another pair...

Where this will stop, I have no idea, however, we may consider that the best solution for our secure cryptographic hash function is this;

  • The encryptions are identity maps.

Well, one may consider the output size of the hash functions as 256 or more, with ECB mode encryption or others. This may require a different analysis, that I will not consider, however, we showed that this requirement is not good for secure cryptographic hash functions.


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