Some projects (e.g., https://zkpass.org/) are claiming that interactive ZKPs can be more efficient than non-interactive ZKPs. What is the rationale behind this?

  • $\begingroup$ Can you describe or provide a link to the specific claim? The website you linked isn't very user-friendly. $\endgroup$
    – lamontap
    Commented Mar 25 at 19:03
  • 2
    $\begingroup$ I'm the wrong person to give a full answer, but part of it is that attackers are more constrained in the setting of interactive proofs. See for example section 5.3.1 of Thaler's Proofs, Arguments, and Zero-Knowledge. This can be used to justify smaller parameters for interactive proofs. $\endgroup$
    – Mark Schultz-Wu
    Commented Mar 25 at 21:37
  • $\begingroup$ @lamontap They have a white paper under the "Resources" tab. You can see their benchmark comparison in Section 5. If I understand correctly, they achieve their performance gain through usage of Interactive Commit and Prove Zero-Knowledge Proofs (ICP-ZKP, see section 1.3 and 4). Is this plausible? $\endgroup$
    – mti
    Commented Mar 27 at 20:42
  • $\begingroup$ @MarkSchultz-Wu That argument definitely seems plausible and valid 👍 $\endgroup$
    – mti
    Commented Mar 27 at 20:43
  • $\begingroup$ I am not sure if this is what zkpass refers to but, another aspect of efficient is the communication complexity. For a SIGMA protocol the interactive version requires a 1.5 round trip of communication. With that comes all sorts of overhead to achieve that communication. In non-interactive version only incurs a single protocol message. For an online application this is much more efficient. $\endgroup$ Commented Mar 27 at 20:50


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