In the book IMC by Katz and Lindell, definition 3.8 says that "if for all PPT adversaries A, there is a negligible function negl such that for all n ......".

I am confused about why it holds not for "sufficiently large n's" but for "all n".

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  • 1
    $\begingroup$ Because the definition of "negligible" already incorporates "for all sufficiently large $n$." $\endgroup$
    – Mikero
    Mar 31 at 4:04

1 Answer 1


It does not matter. If the inequality $f(n)\leq \mathsf{negl}(n)$ holds for $n>n_0$, then we can always find a constant $$c_0 = \max \left\{ 1, \frac{f(1)}{\mathsf{negl}(1)}, \cdots, \frac{f(n_0)}{\mathsf{negl}(n_0)}\right\}$$ such that $f(n)\leq c_0\mathsf{negl}(n)$ holds for all $n$ while $c_0\mathsf{negl}(n)$ is still negligible.


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