Wikipedia article on Man-in-the-middle attack mentions, in the list of defenses against it, some method called "Carry-forward verification", but it does not explain it. I am curious about different MITM defense methods in general. Can someone describe this method or point to description? (Of course googling does not give anything except wikipedia itself with its clones.)

ps. Would be grateful also if someone points me to more elaborated survey of MITM defense methods (and especially for key exchange).

  • 2
    $\begingroup$ owasp.org/index.php/… $\endgroup$
    – user991
    Commented Dec 27, 2013 at 0:29
  • 2
    $\begingroup$ Since you're interested in MITM in general this should be useful $\endgroup$
    – rath
    Commented Dec 28, 2013 at 6:15

1 Answer 1


That was a bad edit to Wikipedia. The phrase Carry-forward verification is not a standard, well-known term in the cryptographic literature. It should not have been included in Wikipedia without a reference to something more specific. But oh well, no one is perfect, sometimes these things happen.

Your request for an elaborate survey of MITM defense is most likely too broad for this site; the kind of defenses that are suitable are dependent upon the specific application domain. You can read up about certificate authorities, web of trust, X.509, certificate pinning, trust-on-first-use (aka key continuity), and many other models. There's lots written on this topic.


Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service and acknowledge you have read our privacy policy.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.