Yes, you can.
Your construction $C=P\oplus KDF(K||N)$ is IND-CPA secure, assuming the KDF is secure, which is reasonable. This construction can be used and is sometimes used with ECIES (meaning $E_K(M)=K\oplus M$), but I'd recommend against using it. Replacing the KDF with AES is as secure as the above construction, as this mode is called CTR-mode, which is proven to be IND-CPA secure.
For practical purposes, as there are better solutions, which already provide higher security levels (IND-CCA2).
I strongly recommend you not to use AES-CTR or "KDF-CTR" but rather use AES-GCM, which provides you with full authentication at high speeds with constant-size tags.