# Secret Sharing 1 Required

Devise a scheme so that a message M can be shared among X, Y and Z in such a say that the only way of recovering the message is when X is present with either Y or Z. When X isn't present or each is alone, they will not be able to recover the shared secret.

Additionally, generalize the above to devise a scheme so that a M can be shared among 5 entities such that the only way of recovering the secret is when either X and Y are both present or when C, D, E are all present together.

I have no idea how to create a hierarchy such as what is being proposed. Any ideas?

• Is this homework? – poncho Apr 9 '14 at 1:28
• No, or at least not that I am aware of. This was a question that was told to me by a friend when discussing secret sharing. I had no idea where to even begin, so I figured someone here might have some idea. – user2266603 Apr 9 '14 at 1:36

This is actually a fairly trivial case of secret sharing:

In the first case, we select a random value $R$, we give $X$ the value $R \oplus M$, and we give both Y and Z the value $R$. Obviously, $X$ alone, nor $Y$ and $Z$ together cannot reconstruct $R$.

In the second case, we select random values $R_1$, $R_2$ and $R_3$, we give:

• $R_1 \oplus M$ to $X$

• $R_1$ to $Y$

• $R_2 \oplus R_3 \oplus M$ to $C$

• $R_2$ to $D$

• $R_3$ to $E$

Shamir Secret Sharing is a neat trick; however sometimes problems can be solved by simpler methods.

• Thank you! It was one of those things where I was overthinking how difficult the question was. Now that you've stated this, the logic behind it is quite obvious. I think I was also thinking that each entity would have to have a distinct value. Thanks again! – user2266603 Apr 9 '14 at 10:57