No, they are not conceptually related.
A keystream is the output of a stream cipher and is of (effectively, for modern ciphers) infinite length. If you need to encrypt more plaintext, you use the cipher to produce more bytes of keystream.
On the other hand, password salts are of fixed size and their purpose is to make every password effectively unique. A simplification is that if two people have the passwords
password but different salts, one password might be hashed as if it were
passwordxSFsz8sl while the other is hashed as if it was
passwordRsRb58yd. Without this protection, an attacker could (for instance) hash the 100,000 most common passwords and compare them to all of the hashes in your database. With salts, an attacker can't share this work between users in the database; to try those same 100,000 passwords, s/he must compute all 100,000 for every user in the database.
A much closer analogue of password salts is an initialization vector (or IV), used in encryption. Their purpose is very similar; they ensure that each instance of a cipher will encrypt the plaintexts differently so that even two identical plaintexts will encrypt to a unique ciphertext.