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Can someone explain this to me? For example how M chanes to 0c?

Changing plaintext to state:

enter image description here

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  • $\begingroup$ that is a terrible example, "M" is not represented by 0x0c in any standard encoding $\endgroup$ – Richie Frame Nov 2 '14 at 10:04
  • $\begingroup$ that's what i'm saying! I took this picture from a pdf that explains AES alghorithm. $\endgroup$ – hamedb71 Nov 2 '14 at 10:08
  • $\begingroup$ If this is not right so in general how text changes to state? $\endgroup$ – hamedb71 Nov 2 '14 at 10:09
  • $\begingroup$ that is only good at showing where in the state the plaintext bytes are placed, it treats the input as a stream that is placed in the columns top to bottom, left to right $\endgroup$ – Richie Frame Nov 2 '14 at 10:56
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This question has nothing to do with AES; instead, it has to do with an encoding that someone picked for this example (and the fact that you have questions about it indicates that it wasn't a great choice by whoever came up with the example).

The encoding is simple; we translate the letters 'A' through 'Z' to the integers 0 to 25, which is in hexidecimal the values 00 through 1A.

M is the 12th letter after A, and hence it is translated into the integer 12, which is 0C in hex.

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  • $\begingroup$ Thanks it was so helpful. One more question:Is this method (translate letters to integers as you mentioned) apply in all encryption algorithms? $\endgroup$ – hamedb71 Nov 2 '14 at 13:06
  • $\begingroup$ @hamedb71: just about all modern encryption systems handle strings of bytes (or, more generally, a string of bits); whoever uses it is expected to translate his message (in whatever format it is in) into a string of bytes. This translation from 'A'-'Z' -> 0-25 is one possible translation, however it is not the most common. The most common would be to take the ASCII (or Unicode) values, and reinterpret those as a string of bytes. $\endgroup$ – poncho Nov 2 '14 at 18:15

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