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I have a prime $p = 7$ and was tasked to select a random value in $\mathbb Z_p^*$ in my signature scheme.

What does the full range of $\mathbb Z_p^*$ contain in this case?

Is it $\{0...7\}$ or $\{0...6\}$ or $\{1...6\}$ or $\{1...7\}$?

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  • $\begingroup$ This question is purely mathematical (I known, $\mathbb Z_p^*$ is often used in cryptographics). Better move it to math.stackexchange.com? $\endgroup$ – Thekwasti Nov 11 '14 at 7:57
  • $\begingroup$ I overlooked, that this question is raised from a signature scheme... But still, the question itself is pure mathematics. $\endgroup$ – Thekwasti Nov 11 '14 at 8:03
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It contains the equivalence classes represented by $\{1,\ldots,6\}$.

To elaborate on Nova's comment below, $\mathbb{Z}_p$ is the collection of congruence classes when you divide by $p$. When $p=7$, two integers represent the same congruence class when they have the same remainder when divided by $7$. As you probably know, the only possible remainders are $\{0,1,\ldots,6\}$.

In particular, if $n$ is an integer and $0\leq n\leq 6$, then the remainder of $n$ divided by $7$ is $n$ itself. This means that any integer represents the same congruence class as its remainder does.

I hope you can figure out the rest from here, since you should know that the nonzero congruence classes have inverses and the only non-invertible congruence class is the one represented by $0$, hence my original answer.

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    $\begingroup$ Would be nice if you could explain the answer a bit. I know why this is the case, but we should not just answer the question. Explaining the case behind this would be advantageous. $\endgroup$ – Nova Nov 9 '14 at 3:52
  • $\begingroup$ Nive improvement. I upvoted your answer. $\endgroup$ – Nova Nov 11 '14 at 6:54

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