A gradual fair exchange (layman term) is a form of fair exchange protocol where Alice will transfer 1 bit to Bob then Bob will transfer 1 bit to Alice. The flaw with this protocol is that the party which starts first may lose out as after Alice transfer her final bit to Bob , Bob may choose not to transfer his final bit to Alice.

An optimistic fair exchange is like a normal fair exchange except that in the event of a dispute , there is sufficient evidence to show who misbehave during the protocol. An arbitrator is present to settle the dispute.

  1. I would like to know if there's an fair exchange system which combines both optimistic and gradual fair exchange protocols such that I get the best of both worlds? How would it work if its exists?
  2. Is it possible to make gradual fair exchange protocol any fairer, if yes how is it done?
  3. I would also appreciate if someone can explain to me how is "evidence" gathered during the optimistic fair exchange protocol?

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