I am currently trying to understand this Ring-LWE article: http://www.cims.nyu.edu/~regev/papers/ideal-lwe.pdf and I have a question.

Firstly, it is mentioned in the paper that we can view the elliptical Gaussian distributions $D_{\textbf{r}}$ (which are initially defined on $H$) as distributions on $K_{\mathbb{R}} =K \otimes_{\mathbb{Q}} \mathbb{R}$. Even though there isn't any explicit isomorphism mentioned there, I believe that $\varphi:K \otimes_{\mathbb{Q}} \mathbb{R} \to H$, $\varphi(x \otimes a) = a\sigma(x)$ makes sense in this context.

What I dont understand is the claim that the distribution $x \cdot D_{\textbf{r}}$ is equal to $D_{\textbf{t}}$, where $t_i =r_i \cdot |\sigma_i(x)| $, where $x \in K$. What I obtained is the following: if $x\in K$ and $y\in H$, $y=\sum_{i=1}^n y_i h_i$ (distributed $y \sim D_{\textbf{r}}$), then

(EDITED formula) $$xy= \sum_{i \in [s_1]} y_i \sigma_i(x)h_i + \sum_{i \in [s_2]}(y_{s_1+i}\cdot Re\sigma_{s_1+i}(x) - y_{s_1+s_2+i}\cdot Im \sigma_{s_1+1}(x)) h_{s_1+i}) +\sum_{i \in [s_2]}(y_{s_1+s_2+i} \cdot Re \sigma_{s_1+i}(x) + y_{s_1+i} \cdot Im \sigma_{s_1+i}(x))h_{s_1+s_2+i}$$ Basically I obtained the coefficients of $xy$ in base $\{h_1,h_2,\ldots,h_n\}$, and they dont seem to follow gaussian distributions with parameters $t_i = r_i \cdot |\sigma_i(x)|$ (except for the first $s_1$ of them)

Can anybody shed some light on this one ?


1 Answer 1


(I am one of the authors of the paper you're asking about. The isomorphism $\varphi$ you wrote is the intended one.)

The key observation is that a Gaussian $D_r$ of parameter $r$ over $\mathbb{C}$ is "spherical," i.e., it is the sum of independent Gaussians (both of parameter $r$) for the real and imaginary components, and so is invariant under rotations of the complex plane. Therefore, $x \cdot D_r$ equals $D_{|x| \cdot r}$ for any $x \in \mathbb{C}$.

The claim then follows by the fact that multiplication in $K$ corresponds to coordinate-wise multiplication in the real/complex components of $\sigma$. That is, the distribution of $x \cdot D_{(r_1,\ldots,r_n)}$ for $x \in K$ is just $D_{(|\sigma_1(x)| \cdot r_1, \ldots, |\sigma_n(x)| \cdot r_n)}$. (Note that the conjugate symmetry of the pairs of complex embeddings is preserved, as needed.)

  • 1
    $\begingroup$ Nice argument. I have a clearer picture now. I also edited the initial formula, which was incorrect, and the conclusion can be drawn also from there. Thanks $\endgroup$
    – Radu Titiu
    Jul 15, 2015 at 12:28

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