I know that Hardy's work in number theory was used by Clifford Cocks in 1973 to develop the basis for public-key cryptography. What specifically was this work, and how is it used today in cryptography?

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    $\begingroup$ The best thing to do is to read his famous book "introduction to number theory". You can find over the web some pdf, and I know there is a new edition some years ago. This is a reference for all those interested in theory of numbers. $\endgroup$ Sep 6 '15 at 7:24
  • $\begingroup$ There is another connection with Hardy and crypto. Hardy believed (see, A Mathematician's apology) that number theory (and in general pure mathematics) should be practiced as an art, ignoring any possible application to our world. $\endgroup$
    – 111
    Sep 6 '15 at 17:25

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