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When we generate DH parameters file in PEM format, like this:

-----BEGIN DH PARAMETERS-----
MCYCIQDyl7rfGI2GywHp7JC7juWhv3VL+skipzl/329sQCEBQwIBAg==
-----END DH PARAMETERS-----

or

-----BEGIN DH PARAMETERS-----
MIGHAoGBAdilyft4T5FJO0xga8hzoBcUmAZRTlxE930Dfda4LaC8TFsQkibgUYPJ
AuFWuAnKgjWjLH80Pt1shilYdd8b7vL2TL2/e3BBNr4sr8DJLLa7p04mt0t4CSKO
Cp+/pqanm6Mq9xJ3Wo4SDrx70czGhwi5ZNLwwusez9Djwq8dX8IDAgEC
-----END DH PARAMETERS-----

besides additional header and footer lines, there are 4 bytes at first and 2 bytes at the end of the base64 line, and it depends to the DH parameters. How I can generate them knowing DH parameters?

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PEM consists of a header and footer that identify the object that has been encoded. It may sometimes also contain some arguments behind the header line. The actual data is base 64 encoded. You can view the contents by decoding it using a base 64 encoding.

Now the DH parameters are encoded using ASN.1 BER, which is a binary encoding. This encoding is used for most if not all PEM encoded structures. ASN.1 is a data description language. ASN.1 structures can be seen as a tree with constructed nodes (sequences) and primitive nodes (strings, byte arrays, integers and such) all using network ordering. These nodes are generally encoded using tag-length-value (TLV) encoding. As the tag for a SEQUENCE is the value 30 (in hex), the first base 64 letter is almost certainly an M.

The version of base 64 used by PEM pads anything that isn't a multiple of 4 characters (three bytes) to 4 characters using the = character.

So the first characters and the amount of = characters at the end is mainly dependent on the size of the parameters rather than their value.


This is the contents of the ASN.1 tree in the contents of your PEM text:

SEQUENCE(2 elem)
  INTEGER(256 bit) 1097277930034063274792561151504789680016548759529511363308187422232757…
  INTEGER2

and

SEQUENCE(2 elem)
  INTEGER(1025 bit) 331904441233693192104476260016584324479133460055459757886261577377912…
  INTEGER2

generated using the ASN.1 decoder here.

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  • $\begingroup$ For the first sample the hex value is: 3026022100f297badf188d86cb01e9ec90bb8ee5a1bf754bfac922a7397fdf6f6c40210143020102 so the $p = 0x00f297badf188d86cb01e9ec90bb8ee5a1bf754bfac922a7397fdf6f6c40210143$ and $g = 0x02$, I mean the first 4 bytes 30260221 and two last byte 0102. How I can get these values knowing $p$ and $g$? $\endgroup$ – Lisbeth Sep 11 '15 at 12:50
  • $\begingroup$ By generating the ASN.1/ DER structure and base 64 encoding it. What is so special about these characters that you are only interested in them? $\endgroup$ – Maarten Bodewes Sep 11 '15 at 13:04
  • $\begingroup$ Suppose that for $p = 97644095625252072983678624870528832534523886692838983540884057257951423464122235462339429272451577144531979982507779671381339945845522102110423163152475478882578443306666729931948476710206222844009374491419328162512889022645218672174818761729481305040257705366527608007694756644443500139219339820224544073607$ and the generator $g = 7$, I want to create PEM file like mentioned above, how? $\endgroup$ – Lisbeth Sep 11 '15 at 13:26
  • $\begingroup$ Well, the steps are: generate parameter object, encode it to ASN.1 / DER, feed it to a PEM encoder. You would need to program this, and I don't know your runtime. $\endgroup$ – Maarten Bodewes Sep 12 '15 at 0:10

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