The current debate of the FBI trying to get Apple to assist in decrypting an iPhone made me wonder:

Normally, upon turning on an iPhone, everything is decrypted using a 4-digit pin (or actually, a key that is derived from the PIN with a strong KDF, but that's not the point here). The key element of Apple's protection is a locking mechanism that locks or destroys the data upon 10 (or so) failed attempts.

What prevents the FBI from reading all data from the device (including any hardcoded data that may be encoded in chips or whatever) and perform the same decryption within their own environment? (…which does the same as Apple's implementation except for the self-destruction or locking feature.)

Brute forcing a 4 digit PIN is peanuts. The locking feature is not essential for the decryption process.

Is iOS's protection really just security through obscurity, or am I missing something?

(Android wouldn't be any different of course, I'd say everything that can be decrypted with a 4 or 5 digit pin instead of a strong password is fundamentally insecure).

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    $\begingroup$ Without the added security mechanisms, brute forcing a 4 digit PIN is trivial. With them, however, it is extremely difficult. I wouldn't really call this security through obscurity though as the protection is well known. Everyone knows how it work yet cannot get around it (unless Apple capitulates or there is something else there we don't know about). $\endgroup$ – mikeazo Feb 18 '16 at 12:45
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    $\begingroup$ Of course, in response to "why does the FBI ask...", a possible answer could be "Because they want people to think that the FBI/NSA haven't found a way to break the encryption". $\endgroup$ – supercat Feb 18 '16 at 21:00
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    $\begingroup$ If you have a PIN stored in a secured device then obviously you can protect it against brute forcing. If that wasn't the case then chip-and-PIN wouldn't work. Obviously there is a race going on between hardware manufacturers and "hackers" but it seems possible to stay ahead of the curve for the manufacturers. $\endgroup$ – Maarten Bodewes Feb 18 '16 at 21:50
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    $\begingroup$ @supercat: or just as cynically, "because they want to take possession of a nice easy iOS update that does the job and that they can trivially distribute to all law enforcers, to replace whatever expensive and cumbersome system the NSA has come up with to physically read the silicon". But anyone able to give answers of this kind that aren't speculation, would probably be arrested for doing so. $\endgroup$ – Steve Jessop Feb 19 '16 at 2:52
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    $\begingroup$ If Apple does comply, how would the FBI install the update without first unlocking the phone? Based on other comments, physically moving the flash memory chips to an already update phone, would not work. $\endgroup$ – Alex R Feb 20 '16 at 17:11

I'll try to take a stab at this. From Apple's iOS Security Guide, we learn that

The metadata of all files in the file system is encrypted with a random key, which is created when iOS is first installed or when the device is wiped by a user. The file system key is stored in Effaceable Storage. Since it’s stored on the device, this key is not used to maintain the confidentiality of data;


The content of a file is encrypted with a per-file key, which is wrapped with a class key and stored in a file’s metadata, which is in turn encrypted with the file system key. The class key is protected with the hardware UID and, for some classes, the user’s passcode. This hierarchy provides both flexibility and performance. For example, changing a file’s class only requires rewrapping its per-file key, and a change of passcode just rewraps the class key.

In other words: By physically being in possession of the device, you should easily able to get the file system key (take out the SSD and read the key off it). Let's call the file system key $K_{FS}$. Additionally, every file $f$ is encrypted using a per file key $K_f$. To get $K_f$, we need to have the file system key ($K_{FS}$) and the "class key", let's call the class key $K_C$.

So, there's a function $F_1$ which given the file, file-system key, the class key gives you the file key. $K_f$ =$F_1(f, K_{FS}, K_C)$. That means that for the FBI to decrypt a specific file, they'd need:

  • $f$ ✅
  • $K_{FS}$ ✅
  • $K_C$ ❌

So they don't have $K_C$ afaik. Right, how do you normally get that class key? The document says, it's protected by the "hardware UID" ($K_{UID}$) and (sometimes) the user's passcode $K_P$. Alas, there's another function $F_2(K_{UID}, K_P)$ which given the hardware UID and (sometimes) the passcode returns you the class key. Assuming the FBI can easily brute force the passcode ($K_P$), all they need is the hardware UID ($K_{UID}$) but unfortunately for them that is apparently put in the silicon and therefore hard to access:

The device’s unique ID (UID) and a device group ID (GID) are AES 256-bit keys fused (UID) or compiled (GID) into the application processor and Secure Enclave during manufacturing. No software or firmware can read them directly; they can see only the results of encryption or decryption operations performed by dedicated AES engines implemented in silicon using the UID or GID as a key. Additionally, the Secure Enclave’s UID and GID can only be used by the AES engine dedicated to the Secure Enclave. The UIDs are unique to each device and are not recorded by Apple or any of its suppliers. The GIDs are common to all processors in a class of devices (for example, all devices using the Apple A8 processor), and are used for non security-critical tasks such as when delivering system software during installation and restore. Integrating these keys into the silicon helps prevent them from being tampered with or bypassed, or accessed outside the AES engine. The UIDs and GIDs are also not available via JTAG or other debugging interfaces.

The UID allows data to be cryptographically tied to a particular device. For example, the key hierarchy protecting the file system includes the UID, so if the memory chips are physically moved from one device to another, the files are inaccessible. The UID is not related to any other identifier on the device.

So, if I read that correctly, the function $F_2$ seems to be implemented in hardware and is accessible as $F_2'(K_P)$. Note that $F_2'$ only has one parameter which is the user's pass code. In other words $F_2'(K_P) = F_2(K_{UID}, K_P)$, so the hardware UID is provided automatically by the hardware. In non-Secure Enclave iPhones (like the 5C), you can probably brute force it with a custom iOS version that let's you use $F_2'$ as often as you want. In a normal iOS, only the lock screen can presumably run $F_2'$ and prevents you from doing that without ever increasing delays (and potential eventual device wipe). With a Secure Enclave iPhone (5S, 6 (+), 6S (+)) the secure enclave prevents you from running this function repeatedly. So not even the iOS kernel can run $F_2'$ without any delays.

Given that the iPhone in question seems to be a 5C, the FBI only seems to need a special version of iOS from Apple which allows them to use $F_2'$ repeatedly without delays with automatically provided pass codes. That should give the FBI 10000 (assuming a 4 digit pass code) or 1000000 (assuming a 6 digit pass code) "class keys". They can then just try each of the class keys and one of them will give them the data.

It is irrelevant for this particular question but I think it would still be interesting: Does the Secure Enclave change anything here? At the first sight: Obviously yes because a new iOS version wouldn't be good enough because the Secure Enclave would prevent you from running $F_2'$ in a loop by brute forcing the pass code. BUT: The secure enclave runs some kind of firmware too, so this limit could probably be lifted but updating the Secure Enclave. So far it's unclear to me whether Apple can do that without wiping all the content from the Secure Enclave. Different sources claim different things. This article covers that. Especially it cites a tweet from John Kelley who was apparently formerly within Embedded Security at Apple. He claims

[...] I have no clue where they got the idea that changing SPE firmware will destroy keys. SPE FW is just a signed blob on iOS System Part

In other words: Even with a newer iPhone Apple could just deploy a special firmware to the Secure Enclave (SPE) which would allow to run $F_2'$ as often as the FBI pleases.

I hope this helps. All the information is taken from the iOS Security Guide and my interpretation of it.

edit: Because of the comment how my answer answer the question I should indeed state that more clearly. IMHO the FBI asks Apple because the need to run $F_2'$ very often without delays so they can brute force the iPhone's code. For the iPhone 5C a new version of iOS should be enough as only the OS prevents you from doing that (you don't have programmatic access to $F_2'$ without special privileges). For newer iPhones, the Secure Enclave does prevent that apparently. The FBI can't compile their own, hacked version of iOS without this restriction because the iPhone only runs code signed by Apple and the FBI does (probably) not have Apple's signing keys.

Please do comment if you know or think that I misinterpreted anything or got anything wrong.

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    $\begingroup$ One thing that I think is especially interesting about the whole discussion around newer iPhones (5s and beyond) is the fingerprint reader. Wonder if the FBI would even be having this issue if the people had 5s devices with fingerprint login turned on. $\endgroup$ – mikeazo Feb 18 '16 at 13:43
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    $\begingroup$ The fingerprint reader itself can only weaken security because you can always get into the device using just the passcode. The fingerprint adds an additional key, so it weakens the security. $\endgroup$ – Johannes Weiss Feb 18 '16 at 13:45
  • $\begingroup$ @mikeazo Don't forget that iOS requires the passcode a) after every restart and b) whe the device has been incative for 48 hours $\endgroup$ – 130e13a Feb 18 '16 at 19:22
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    $\begingroup$ Perhaps tangental, but what's preventing the FBI from extracting the flash chips, creating a bitwise copy of them, reinserting, and then trying passcodes 10 at a time, restoring from backup every 10th failure? Obviously that would be slower than a programmatic brute-force using a hacked OS/firmware. But seems like it would work, and without all the backdoor controversy (the backdoor controversy being entirely justified imo)? $\endgroup$ – aroth Feb 19 '16 at 5:10
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    $\begingroup$ @aroth probably nothing, except that this is very costly and slow. Also the time between retries becomes increasingly longer. So to try 1000000 codes would be insanely slow, right? Even 10000 for a 4 digit passcode seems in feasibly slow. If I recall correctly the delays are more than 90min for 10 tries. So more than 90000 min, that's more than 62 days of brute forcing plus the time (and risk) of replacing the flash chips. You could cut the time by only trying 6 times (not getting the 1 hour delay after try 8 IIRC) but still, too slow probably. $\endgroup$ – Johannes Weiss Feb 19 '16 at 7:10

The encryption key isn't derived only from the passcode; it's also derived from a number of cryptographic keys etched directly into the CPU's silicon. These keys are impossible to read out in software—there are only instructions to encrypt and decrypt with them—and have been made purposefully difficult to extract by inspecting the hardware.

Without the right keys, you're not brute-forcing a ~10-bit passcode, you're brute-forcing an 256-bit cryptographic key. That's infeasible (or at least extremely difficult) even to the most sophisticated attackers on Earth right now.

Even the court order isn't proposing that Apple extract the keys so the FBI can brute-force the passcode offline. The FBI is only asking Apple to let them feed the iPhone passcodes over the dock connector and disable wrong-passcode delays and auto-erasing mechanisms implemented in software.

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    $\begingroup$ Note that this only helps for specific generations of iPhones because the speed limiting should be done by the chip not the software. Which apparently is fixed in newer versions: blog.trailofbits.com/2016/02/17/… $\endgroup$ – Erwin Feb 19 '16 at 10:12
  • $\begingroup$ The above link is a must-read. In particular it contains an (alleged) verbatim of the technical part of the FBI's demand. $\endgroup$ – fgrieu Feb 19 '16 at 18:13
  • $\begingroup$ Note that side-channel attacks may allow deriving the 256-bit key, if you can freely use the encrypt / decrypt instructions. That's still hard though, but maybe not infeasible. $\endgroup$ – Aleph Feb 21 '16 at 16:14
  • $\begingroup$ @fgrieu The "device must be unlocked by hand" prevents someone, in general cases, from virtualizing the contents and saving time brute forcing the device using computer or someone putting encrypted contents of one iPhone and placing it in another iPhone, and then trying to access it? $\endgroup$ – Abdul Feb 24 '16 at 3:59

It is very difficult to just read out every storage element on a chip unless the chip was designed to let you do it and especially if the chip was deliberately designed to hinder you doing it. Generic memory chips are obviously easy to read out because they were designed to be read out externally but storage locations inside a complex SoC are another matter.

Hence you can have secret key material that is known to the software on a device but which cannot easilly be read out without the cooperation of said software. The software on the device can either be fixed at the factory or updates can be locked down with a digital signature scheme. Potentially the software might be designed to destroy certain secrets if a software update is performed without first unlocking those secrets.

If the software that controls the secret can be updated by the manufacturer without having the acess code or destroying the key material then the manufacturer (or someone who can obtain the manufactuerer's signing key) can produce a version of the software that releases the key material with less checking.

Even if the software cannot be updated then having access to a copy of the code (prefferablly both source and binaries) is likely to be helpful in looking for exploitable vulnerabilities in said code.


Following up on Brent Royal Gordon's answer: If the hardware key truly cannot be retrieved and only used, I think that Apple[1] could fix this weakness by using the passcode to retrieve the "passcode" key (I'm still calling it the passcode key, but it would be some other random key and the passcode is used to retrieve/use it) via hardware and having the hardware itself (not firmware) wipe the stored passcode key after 10 invalid retrieval attempts (in a row).

The passcode key and the 10-try limit along with enable/disable could be stored inside the chip in NVRAM. If I’m not missing something, this should work:

apple file system encryption diagram

Note: modifying the NVRAM settings or setting a new passcode key would require the current passcode and would be subject to the same limitations as retrieving or using the passcode key. Also, the "passcode" would really be a hash of the passcode as it is today.

1: Really ARM, as I've read that Apple's Secure Enclave is a customized version of ARM TrustZone.

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    $\begingroup$ Apple doesn't want to "fix" the problem of not being able to retrieve the key. In every phone after the phone in question (a 5c), Apple added additional hardware to prevent the FBI's request from being practical. That is called Secure Enclave and it provides for hardware based timeouts that get longer for each trial (none for 0-5, seconds for next few, an hour for 9 and above). Apple can't change it once the phone comes of the assembly line. $\endgroup$ – Walter Feb 20 '16 at 6:59
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    $\begingroup$ @Walter this answer is the opposite of that - it is a proposed fix for the weakness that Apple is being asked to exploit. This proposed fix would mean even Apple would be unable to circumvent the 10 attempts limit, as it would be enforced by hardware. It seems that you and the answerer are agreeing but in different words. $\endgroup$ – trichoplax Feb 21 '16 at 18:50

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