How does TLS differ from SSH from a strictly cryptographic perspective?
I know that there are many non-cryptographic differences between them, but I would like to know the cryptographic ones.
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I have broken my head with this subject. Then, I begin to search on the internet and found your question (I believe the same as mine). So, this is my conclusion (of course is a simplification, there are other algorithms between other stuff)
I hope it helps. If I am wrong or could add new information, please let me know
Now, in short:
TLS It needs two inputs to establish connection and authentication.
Next are links to my sources with details about the process of SSH and TLS at these links.