In cryptography, what does the Top notation mean? It resembles a capital T: T

In particular, I saw it in the follwing context:

$c = (c_1,c_2)^\top$

where $c_1$ and $c_2$ are homomorphic ciphertexts


1 Answer 1


Usually, $^\top$ denotes the transpose of a matrix or vector. Common variants include $^t$ and $^T$.

Hence $(c_1,c_2)^\top$ is just $\begin{pmatrix}c_1\\c_2\end{pmatrix}$. Such notation is often used to fit column vectors neatly into text.


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